To secure the proper treatment- получать достойное лечение
Fibrosis and calcification - образование волокнистой ткани и отложение извести
Resultant improvement in the clinical symptoms-получающиеся в результате улучшения в клинических симптомах
Pulmonary tuberculosis is a specific communicable disease, usually chronic but occasionally acute, caused by the bacillus tuberculosis. It is generally believed that the pathogenesis of the disease is as follows: first contact with the disease results in a lesion of the lung which is microscopic in size and usually produces no sings or symptoms by which it may be diagnosed clinically. Healing of this lesion takes place by the deposition of lime salts in and around it so that eventually complete calcification takes place which is evident in X-ray examination of the lung. Inside this lesion, however, are tubercle bacilli which may remain alive for many years.
The disease is widespread. All ages are affected but the normality is highest between 20 and 45 years. The disease may result from the inhaling of dust containing bacillus tuberculosis, from droplet infection or from the contact with contaminated objects. The early symptoms (of the adult type) are usually very insidious. Loss of weight, appetite, and strength, a chronic cough, and a low grade temperature, which is usually more elevated toward night, are common complaints. Persistent night sweats should always arouse suspicion of the disease. As the condition progresses, the patient may start to expectorate material after a paroxysm of coughing. Examination of the sputum will frequently reveal tubercle bacillus. If the disease remains unchecked then, in case of the caseous change of the affected lung tissue, erosion of blood vessels by the pathogenic process may occur and the expectoration of small or, at times, large amounts of blood results.
On the other hand, if the patient secures the proper treatment and if his resistance is good, the disease process may be checked and fibrosis and calcification will occur in the diseased area with resultant improvement in the clinical symptoms.
Tuberculosis is a disease which has occupied the attention of medical men in every age. From early days down to the present time, anatomists and physiologist, have devoted much time and study to investigate its causes and produce its cure. The numerous volumes we have on this subject are, in themselves, sufficient proof of the importance which should be attached to the disease.
But it is necessary to say that up to nowadays tuberculosis still remains a widespread infection in all capitalist countries, standing far beyond and above all others in respect to the victims it claims every year. It spares neither age nor sex. This «plague of mankind» carries off men and women in the prime of life or renders them disabled at the age of 30 to 40.
Приложение № 5
Тренировка в употреблении лексики.
Применение нового учебного материала
I Answer the questions.
1. What kind of disease is Pulmonary tuberculosis?
2. What is the pathogenesis of the disease?
3. The disease is widespread, isn’t it?
4. How can the disease pass from one person to another?
5. What are the early symptoms (of the adult type) of the disease?
6. As the condition progresses, the patient may start to expectorate material after a paroxysm of coughing, may not he?