Country and the people. Glimpses of the British History
Heavy Duty roller conveyors are used for moving items that are at least 500 lbs. This type of conveyor makes the handling of such heavy equipment/products easier and more time effective. Many of the heavy duty roller conveyors can move as fast as 75 feet/minute.
Other types of heavy duty roller conveyors are gravity roller conveyor, chain driven live roller conveyor, pallet accumulation conveyor, multi-strand chain conveyor, and chain & roller transfers.
Gravity roller conveyors are extremely easy to use and are used in many different types of industries such as automotive and retail.
Chain driven live roller conveyors are used for single or bi-directional material handling. Large heavy loads are moved by chain driven live roller conveyors.
Pallet accumulation conveyors are powered through a mechanical clutch. This is used instead of individually powered and controlled sections of conveyors.
Multi-strand chain conveyors are used for double pitch roller chains. Products that can not be moved on traditional roller conveyors can be moved by a multi-strand chain conveyor.
Chain & roller conveyors are short runs of two or more strands of double pitch chain conveyor built into a chain driven line roller conveyor. These pop up under the load and move the load off of the conveyor.
Country and the people. Glimpses of the British History
Listen to the text and choose the right word in brackets:
What exactly is Britain?
Who are the British?
Geographically speaking, there are two large islands and several much smaller ones lying off the ( southwest/ northwest) of Europe. Collectively they are known as "The British Isles". The largest island is called ( Great Britain/ The British Isles). The other large one is called ( Ireland/ Northern Ireland). Politically speaking there are two states. One of these governs most of the island of Ireland. This state is usually called The Republic of Ireland. The other state has authority over the rest of the British Isles. The official name of the whole country is "The United Kingdom of GB and Northern Ireland" . Although it is usually known by a shorter name . For instance at the United Nation and the European Parliament it is referred to as ( "The United Kingdom"/ Great Britain). In everyday speech it is often shortened to the ( "UK"/ GB). In the other contexts (for example the name you hear when the golden medal winner steps onto the rostrum at the Olympic Games) it is referred to as ( Great Britain/ The United Kindom). The stickers on cars is another example of it. In writing or speaking that is not especially formal or informal, the name ( "Britain"/ Anglican) is used. The normal adjective, when talking about the UK is ( British/ Britons).
Some historical or poetic names are also associated with the UK.
ALBION is the word used in some poetic or rhetorical contexts to refer to ( England/ Great Britain). It was the original Roman name for Britain. It may come from the ( Latin/ Roman) Albus, meaning "white". White chalk cliffs around ( Dover/ The English Channel) on the south coast are the first part of England to be seen when crossing the sea from the ( European/ Asian) mainland.
BRITANNIA is the name that the ( Vikings/ Romans) gave to their ( southern/ northern) English province (it covers approximately the area of present day England). It is also the name given to the female embodiment of Britain, always shown wearing a helmetand holding a trident (the symbol of power over the seas). The figure of ( Britannia/ British Caledonia) has been on the reverse side of many British coins for more than 300 years.
People often refer to ( Britain/ UK) by another name. They call it England. But this is not strictly correct and it can make some people angry. ( England/ Great Britain) is only one of the four nations of the ( British Isles/ The United Kingdom)-England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland. Their political unification was a gradual process that took several hundred years. It was completed in 1800 when the Irish Parliament was joined with the ( Government/ Parliament) of England, Scotland, Wales in Westminster, so that the whole British Isle became a single sate - the "The United Kingdom of GB and Northern Ireland". However in 1222, most of Ireland became a separate state.
At one time the four nations were distinct from each other in almost every aspects of life. In the first place, they were different racially. The people of Ireland, Wales and highland of Scotland belonged to the ( Roman/ Celtic) race. The people of England and lowland of Scotland were mainly of ( Gaelic/ Germanic) origin. This difference was reflected in the languages they spoke. People in the ( Gaelic/ Celtic) areas spoke Celtic languages: Irish, Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic and Welsh. People in the German areas speak ( Germanic/ Gaelic) dialect. It includes the one which has developed into modern English. The nations also tend to have different economic, social and legal systems.
Today the differences become blurred. But they have not disappeared. Although there is only one government for the whole ( Britain/ England), and people have the same passports regardless of where in Britain they live, some aspects of government are organized separately (and even sometimes differently) in four parts of the United Kingdom. Moreover Welsh, Scottish, and Irish people feel their identity very strongly.
The Union Flag approved in 1801 is a combination of the banners of England (St. George’s Flag which has a red cross with extended horizontal lines on a white field), Scotland (St. Andrew’s Flag which has a white cross on a blue field) and Ireland (St. Patrick’s Flag which has a red cross on a white field) The arms of the crosses do not meet at the centre. The Flag is known as the Union Jack.
The Union Jack
The Union Jack is the national flag of the UK. It is a combination of the cross of St George, the cross of St Andrew and the cross of St Patrick (Identifying symbols of the four nations). Continue listening to the text and choose the right word in brackets: