Harrow School-British example of alternative school
Known as independent school, suggesting initiative and enterprise instead of snobbery and prejudice. The backgrounds of the pupils are far from aristocratic.
Educational program: Latin, Greek, craft design technology, science laboratories, Russian, computer sciences, modern teaching techniques in all subjects.
Discipline: don’t beat any boys, try to encourage them to treat other people as they would be treated, are very fussy about courtesy, and punish the boys by making them do smth for the community (clearing up all the litter over the main public streets)
Extra-curriculum activities: principle to educate “the whole man”, teaching acting, music, art, technology, all the kinds of games you could possibly think of, society life-debating societies, science societies, philosophy societies, chapel services, communion services.
12. Drug abuse – the plague of the century
Drugs – both legal and illicit – have accompanied humans since the beginning of civilisation. In the 21st century the world seems to be facing a drugs crisis. It has been estimated that since the hippies’ times the rates of teenage drug use have risen sharply, in some cases nearly doubling.
The figures show that nearly 40% of young people admit having smoked pot: marijuana or hashish. Nearly 12% have tried LSD, a hallucinogenic drug. Besides, drugs have turned into the world’s biggest business, second only after the arms industry. Drug trafficking has become an international organised crime. There appear new trade routes, coming mainly from the two most important drug-growing areas – Latin America and South Asia. What is more, the so-called prodigies of chemistry invent new substances, new narcotics, some of which are lethal. Together with this, there emerge new diseases that can be spread by drug users such as AIDS and hepatitis.
So, it is quite evident that drugs abuse has become the new plague of the 21st century.
Dwelling on a problem, it should be mentioned that there are three main kinds of drug – hard, soft and legal. Hard drugs include heroin, cocaine, LSD and crack. Marijuana, amphetamines and ecstasy belong to soft drugs. Caffeine, nicotine, alcohol and barbiturates are all legal drugs. Though stated to be harmless, the legal drugs, if abused, can affect one so that they find themselves depending on a regular supply of them. This is because most of us smoke, have coffee or drink either as a way of calming ourselves down and relieving tension or as a way of bucking ourselves up (ïðèîáîäðèòü), finding extra energy. These drugs become associated with their power to relieve certain feelings and a habit is formed.
Stronger drugs cab be habit-forming in just the same way. The drug taker comes to rely on the effect of the drug to produce a sensation of well-being and this reliance increases, until eventually dependence on a continual supply of the drug is established and an addictive habit is formed.
Today no one can be secured against taking drugs. People who are addicted to drugs can be of any age and walk of life. Their reasons for taking drugs are as varied as the environments in which they live.
Most teenagers begin using drugs out of mere curiosity and immaturity. They consider it an important ingredient of having fun. They go out with their friends and spend most weekends at all-nighters, clubs and parties. Wishing to be in tune with their friends or simply succumbing to peer pressure of those they hang out with, young people take pills and smoke pot. It prevents tiredness, makes cheerful and energetic. Later on they start taking more for kicks and each time they have to increase numbers to repeat the effect. As a result, they get addicted and without taking drugs feel absolutely brought down. The incidence of drug use often depends on economic factors, among which the high rate of youth unemployment. Young people can’t get a job, they can’t fulfil themselves and feel useless for the society.
Causes of drug abuse among adults are often rooted in their dissatisfaction with life, for instance, frustration of the career, unemployment, failures in work or family problems. They start taking drugs in the hope to escape the reality. They forget about their work duties and obligations, abandon families, alienate from old friends and eventually sink to demoralisation and degradation as a personality.
The eternal question that fails to be answered is what measures should be taken to solve the drug problem. The previous tough programmes aimed mainly at reducing the supply of drugs proved to be inefficient. Despite the fact that arrests for the sale and possession of drugs increased, illicit drug use of all types is also sharply up across Europe. Law-enforcement officials estimate that despite the best efforts of the police, only 10 to 30 per cent of illicit drug shipments are ever indicated. The rapid opening of borders is accompanied by what is known as drug tourism which is especially boosting in the countries bordering on Holland.
Because of this many EU states are in the process of changing their drug policies and instead of lobbying for some stiffer penalties, support prevention efforts which put greater emphasis on education and treatment, rather than repression.
Some of those policies have already born fruit. In the case of HIP transmission rates, the establishment of needle exchange programs for addicts has been a clear success, preventing the further spread of the disease. Where those programs are absent, HIV incidence continues to rise sharply.
This issue is certainly disputable, because to launch needle exchange programs means to publicly recognize drug abuse as part of our social life. At the same time we need to learn to live in a world with drugs. It’s our reality, however hush it may be.
Besides, it is important to avoid adopting a one-size-fits-all policy which is still favoured by many states. It is necessary to explore the situation in each country and to maintain flexible policies.
One emerging idea of how to solve the problem is to use tests as the basic for competitions that would recognise teens who stay clean. Schools would encourage students to take drug tests, and those who pass will get merchandise discounts at local businesses or will even be granted college scholarships. Moreover, those enticed by these incentives might nudge fence-sitting friends away from drugs. If tests are obligatory, the threat of them might also help students fend off peer pressure to get high. It’s not however clear who would pay for the tests, counseling and treatment. What is more, some educators are afraid that families will object to the intrusion on students’ privacy. A possible compromise might be mandatory but anonymous tests, which would provide schoolwide incentives without risking false accusations against individuals. Besides, those who tested positive would be offered treatment but would not be prosecuted.
As far as Belarus is concerned, several prevention programs have already been implemented, for instance, “Families against Drug Abuse and AIDS”, “Life must go on”, “Choose the Future” etc. There are a number of organisations dealing with this problem, among which a non-governmental organisations “Mothers against Drugs”. The chief goal of M.A.D. is to mobilize parents, educators and community leaders to prevent their children from getting into the terrible tragedy of drug addiction which today affects one fifth of all Belarusian families. They hold seminars and conferences for parents, teachers and students in schools and other public places; develop and distribute educational materials such as videos, pamphlets, books; provide information about effective treatment, rehabilitation and counseling facilities operated by non-government and government organizations; they have established self-support groups of mothers and relatives of drug addicts and affiliates of the organization in all the major cities of Belarus.
To sum up, one should say that when you fight a war against drugs and for your children’s future no strategy should go untried.
Drug Abuse is Spreading Fast in Belarus as well.
In many countries of the world drug abuse has become a real problem that threatens people's health and stability within society. Unfortunately, Belarus is one of such countries. For several years drug abuse has been progressing. According to police statistics, the number of crimes committed by drug abusers has increased more than 12 times during the last 10 years. The amount of confiscated drugs has increased 23 times in the same time period. Drug abuse and illegal drug trafficking have a negative effect on law and order and the nations' health
Where do addicts get their drugs?
Drugs even the least expensive ones, are unaffordable to many. A great majority of drug abusers prefer to make their own drug of poppies and other plants containing narcotic substances. Consequently, illegal cultivation of such plants is becoming increasingly widespread. The spread of the illegal cultivation of opium poppies is especially menacing.
Illegal drug trafficking.
The import of illegal drugs to Belarus and the trafficking of drugs across its territory are also on rise. Organized crime is also trying to establish control over the extremely lucrative illegal drugs market. Along with Belarusian criminal gangs the illegal drugs business is also controlled by gangs from the Caucasus and Central Asia, from non-CIS countries are hot so active due to the small size of the Belarusian drugs market and customers' inability to afford expensive drugs.
Drug business: who is in control?
In general, the number of those wishing to enter the drug business in Belarus has increased. Many drug carriers are Belarusian citizens (mostly women). Sometimes they do it unknowingly. Belarusian citizens who carried significant amounts of drugs were arrested in Rome, Frankfurt, Barcelona, Buenos Aires and Istanbul.
Incidentally, women and teenagers are becoming increasingly involved in the drug business. Pensioners also pitch in.
Experts unanimously believe that it was namely drug abuse that triggered to the spread of AIDS in Belarus.
The AIDS epidemic will continue to spread extremely fast if the country's leadership fails to allocate enough funds for the prevention and treatment of drug addiction. Belarus also lacks proper legislation to fight illegal drug traffickers.