3. Complete the Listening section first. You will hear the recording twice.
4. Read each question carefully before answering.
5. Write clearly and neatly.
6. Carefully transfer your answers to the answer sheet.
7. Remember to check your answers before submitting your paper.
8. There are 7 pages to this Summative Assessment, including this page.
Speaking (Given in separate session)
You are going to hear a tutor talking to a group of philosophy students
Question 1-3 (2 points each)
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.
Philosophy Department – Tutor’s responsibilities
To provide help with academic work in the philosophy course.
To refer students to other support services in the university, which 1)_______ from counseling to welfare.
To make an appointment, students should write their name in a time slot in 2)________ on the door.
To speak to the tutor students should 3)________ between sessions.
Questions 4-9 (1 point each)
Circle the correct letter A-C.
4. Tutorials are
C. once every two weeks
5. Tutorial registers in the Philosophy Department
A. started last year
B. are not taken
C. will start this year
6. Most students
A. were very annoyed by people arriving late
B. were fairly annoyed by people arriving late
C. didn’t like exit questionnaires
7. In the tutorial, there will be a review of the lectures
A. by the author
B. for the previous week
C. by a visiting lecturer
8. Preparation for the tutorial each week may include
A. preparing an outline
B. writing an essay
C. in-depth analysis
9. Continuous assessment grades do not include
B. project work
Question 10 (1 point each)
Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for the answer.
The tutor hopes tutorial activities will have an impact on students’ 10)_________.
The wonder invention that could change the world: Graphene
By DAVID DERBYSHIRE
It is tougher than diamond, but stretches like rubber. It is virtually invisible, conducts electricity and heat better than any copper wire and weighs next to nothing. Meet graphene — an astonishing new material which could revolutionise almost every part of our lives.
Some researchers claim it’s the most important substance to be created since the first synthetic plastic more than 100 years ago.
If it lives up to its promise, it could lead to mobile phones that you roll up and put behind your ear, high definition televisions as thin as wallpaper, and bendy electronic newspapers that readers could fold away into a tiny square.
It could transform medicine, and replace silicon as the raw material used to make computer chips. It was just discovered seven years ago, but the buzz around it is extraordinary.
In terms of its economics, one of the most exciting parts of the graphene story is its cost. Normally when scientists develop a new wonder material, the price is eye-wateringly high.
But graphene is made by chemically processing graphite — the cheap material in the ‘lead’ of pencils. Every few months researchers come up with new, cheaper ways of mass producing graphene, so that some experts believe it could eventually cost less than £4 per pound.
But is graphene really the wonder stuff of the 21st century?
For a material with so much promise, it has an incredibly simple chemical structure. A sheet of graphene is just a single layer of carbon atoms, locked together in a strongly-bonded honeycomb pattern.
That makes it the thinnest material ever made. You would need to stack three million graphene sheets on top of each other to get a pile one millimeter high. It is also the strongest substance known — 200 times stronger than steel and several times tougher than diamond.
A sheet of graphene as thin as clingfilm could hold the weight of an elephant.
Despite its strength, it is extremely flexible and can be stretched by 20 per cent without any damage. It is also a superb conductor of electricity — far better than copper, traditionally used for wiring — and is the best conductor of heat on the planet.
Graphene is made from graphite, a plentiful grey mineral mostly mined in Chile, India and Canada. A pencil lead is made up of many millions of layers of graphene. These layers are held together only weakly — which is why they slide off each other when a pencil is moved across the page.
Graphene was first isolated by Professors Konstantin Novoselov and Andrew Geim at Manchester University in 2004. The pair used sticky tape to strip away thin flakes of graphite, then attached it to a silicon plate which allowed the researchers to identify the tiny layers through a microscope.
Russian-born Prof Novoselov, 37, believes graphene could change everything from electronics to computers.
‘I don’t think it has been over-hyped,’ he said. ‘It has attracted a lot of attention because it is so simple — it is the thinnest possible matter — and yet it has so many unique properties.
‘There are hundreds of properties which are unique or superior to other materials. Because it’s only one atom thick it’s quite transparent — not many materials that can conduct electricity which are transparent.’
Its discovery has triggered a boom for material science. Last year, there were 3,000 research papers on its properties, and 400 patent applications.
The electronics industry is convinced graphene will lead to gadgets that make the iPhone and Kindle seem like cheap toys.
Modern touch-sensitive screens use indium tin oxide — a substance that is transparent but which carries electrical currents. But indium tin oxide is expensive, and gadgets made from it break easily when dropped. Replacing indium tin oxide with graphene-based compounds could allow for flexible, paper-thin computer screens. South Korean researchers have created a 63cm flexible touch-screen using graphene.
Imagine reading your newspaper on a sheet of electric paper. Tapping a button on the corner could instantly update the contents or move to the next page. Once you’ve finished reading the paper, it could be folded up and used anew tomorrow.
Other researchers are looking at many ways of using graphene in medicine. It is also being touted as an alternative to the carbon-fibre bodywork of boats and bikes. Graphene in tyres could make them stronger. Some even claim it will replace the silicon in computer chips. In the future, a graphene credit card could store as much information as today’s computers.
‘We are talking of a number of unique properties combined in one material which probably hasn’t happened before,’ said Prof Novoselov. ‘You might want to compare it to plastic. But graphene is as versatile as all the plastics put together.
‘It’s a big claim, but it’s not bold. That’s exactly why there are so many researchers working on it.’
And sceptics point out that most new materials — such as carbon-fibre — take 20 years from invention before they can be used commercial use.
But its future is far from certain. This is just the beginning.
Multiple Choice.Read the questions below and choose the best answer (A, B, C, D) based on the information provided in the text above. Each question in this section is worth 3 points.
Which of the following best describes the properties of graphene?
a) weak, difficult to make, but interesting
b) very strong, elastic, super conductive, nearly invisible, very thin
c) almost as strong as steel, useful, totally invisible, easy to make
d) new, widely used, about the same as plastic, expensive
What is the shape of graphene?
a) it can be made into any shape necessary
b) thin, flat and round
c) several layers of carbon atoms bonded together with an irregular shape
d) one layer of carbon atoms stuck together in a honeycomb shape
According to the article, graphene will allow us to:
a) make electronic devices much more advanced than current devices
b) build houses using special devices
c) cure most known diseases using devices made of this material
d) recycle our current devices cheaply and protect the environment
Graphene was first discovered:
a) 100 years ago
b) this year
c) seven years ago
d) in China
What advantages does graphene have over current materials used for touch-sensitive screens?
a) graphene is stronger and more flexible than current materials
b) graphene is more transparent than current materials and costs less
c) current materials are difficult to make and poisonous
d) graphene is modern and fashionable
Based on the above article, which of the following is NOT true.
a) graphene is made from graphite
b) graphene is only one atom thick
c) graphene is superior to copper for electrical purposes
d) graphene is currently being used computer chips
Non-believers think graphene
a) is too expensive to be useful in most applications
b) will take a long time to be developed into a usable material
c) is a waste of time for researchers
d) is not as useful as some scientist are saying
III. Writing Task
In the future, students may have the choice of studying at home by using technology such as computers or television or of studying at traditional schools. Which would you prefer? Use reasons and specific details to explain your choice.