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THE ADVERBIAL MODIFIER

THE NOUN. NUMBER

1. All children like ice-cream.

Children is a common, countable, concrete, animate noun. The noun is used in the plural. The plural form is built in an irregular way.

Ice-cream is a common, uncountable, material noun.

 

2. Measles is a very catching disease.

Measles is a common, invariable singular noun.

 

3. Will you comment on this grammar phenomena?

Phenomena is an irregular plural form of the common noun ‘phenomenon’.

 

THE GENITIVE CASE

 

1. Many people like Byron’s poems.

Byron’s poems is a dependent specifying genitive case, it denotes authorship.

 

2. Far in the distance she saw a child’s figure.

A child’s figure is a dependent classifying genitive case.

 

3. Whose hat is that?” — “Virgina’s”.

Virgina’s is an absolute (independent) genitive case. It is used to avoid the repetition of the noun ‘hat’

4. We hold a lovely evening at Peter’s.

At Peter’s is an absolute (independent) genitive case. It is used to indicate a place of residence.

5. They met at the hairdresser’s.

At the hairdresser’s is an absolute (independent) genitive case. It is used to indicate a place where business is run.

6. She is a pupil of my father’s.

A pupil of my father’s is the double genitive.

 

THE ARTICLE

 

1. I’ve read a very interesting novel.

The indefinite article is used before the noun ‘novel’ in its classifying function. The noun is premodified by a descriptive attribute.

2. A sonnet is a poem of fourteen lines

The indefinite article is used before the noun ‘sonnet’ in its generic function. The article has the meaning of ‘any’, ‘every’.

 

3. I won’t say a word.

The indefinite article is used before the noun ‘word’ in its numerical function. The article has the meaning of the cardinal numeral ‘one’.

 

4. The whale is in danger of becoming extinct.

The definite article is used before the noun ‘whale’ in its generic function. It refers to the whole class of objects of the same kind.

 

5. Are we on the right road?

The definite article is used before the noun ‘road’ in its specifying function. The specification is provided by the premodifying restrictive attribute ‘right’.

 

6. The students of our institute are taking their exams in June.

The definite article is used before the noun ‘students’ in its specifying function. The specification is provided by the postmodifying restrictive phrase ‘of our institute’.

 

7. The sun sank below the horizon.

The definite article is used before the noun ‘sun’ in its specifying function. The specification is provided by the meaning of the noun, which indicates a unique object.

 

8. Go to the kitchen.

The definite article is used before the noun ‘kitchen’ in its specifying function. The specification is provided by the situation.

 

9. Knowledge is power.

The zero article is used before the abstract noun ‘knowledge’ to indicate a generic reference.



 

10. I would rather have a whisky.

The indefinite article is used before the material noun ‘whiskey’ to indicate a portion of drink.

 

THE ADJECTIVE

 

1. “The Swan Lake” is the best ballet we have seen.

‘The best’ is the superlative degree of the adjective ‘good’. The superlative degree is formed in a suppletive way.

 

2. My brother is much younger than myself

‘Much younger’ is the comparative degree of the adjective ‘young’. The comparative degree is formed synthetically, by adding the suffix – er. The adjective is premodified by the intensifier ‘much’.

3. The film appeared to be more interesting than we expected.

‘More interesting’ is the comparative degree of the adjective ‘interesting’. The comparative degree is formed analytically, by adding the morpheme ‘more’.

4. The old receive a pension.

‘The old’ is a partially substantivized adjective denoting a group of people.

5. The beautiful is pleasant to an eye.

‘The beautiful’ is a partially substantivized adjective denoting an abstract notion.

6. The trees were turning yellows and reds.

‘Yellows and reds’ is a wholly substantivized adjective denoting shades of colours.

OBLIQUE MOODS

 

  1. It was as if she were trying to tell him something.

Were trying is Subjunctive II in its non-perfect form. It is used in the predicative clause of a complex sentence.

 

  1. Oh, that the storm were over!

Were is Subjunctive II in its non-perfect form. It is used in a simple exclamatory sentence beginning with ‘Oh, that…’.

 

  1. You had better keep out of sight until it’s all over.

 

Had better is Subjunctive II in its non-perfect form. It is used in a simple sentence with a modal expression denoting advice.

 

  1. I wish I hadn’t got into this mess.

 

Hadn’t got is Subjunctive II in its perfect form. It is used in the object clause of a complex sentence after the verb ‘to wish’ in the main clause.

 

5. He speaks as if he had never seen me before.

Had never seen is Subjunctive II in its perfect form. It is used in the adverbial clause of comparison of a complex sentence.

6. It is time I made up my mind.

Made up is Subjunctive II. It is used in the attributive clause of a complex sentence after the expression ‘It’s time…’ in the main clause.

7. I would never forgive myself if I profited by his generosity.

Would never forgive is the Conditional Mood in its non-perfect form. It is used in the main clause of a complex sentence. Profited is Subjunctive II in its non-perfect form. It is used in the adverbial clause of unreal condition. Both the Conditional Mood and Subjunctive II refer the action to the future.

8. Confound your ideas!

Confound is Subjunctive I. It is used in a simple sentence to denote a wish.

  1. He suggested that I should come for her.

Should come is the Suppositional Mood in its non-perfect form. It is used in the object clause of a complex sentence after the verb ‘to suggest’ in the main clause.

 

  1. It is necessary that all should work hard.

Should work is the Suppositional Mood in its non-perfect form. It is used in the subject clause of a complex sentence

  1. Bertha dared to say nothing lest he should hear tears in her voice.

Should hear is the Suppositional Mood in its non-perfect form. It is used in the adverbial clause of purpose of a complex sentence.

THE SENTENCE

1. The child laughed merrily.

It is a simple, two-member, complete sentence. It is extended. According to the communicative type the sentence is declarative.

 

2. English spring flowers!

It is a simple, one-member, nominal sentence. It is extended. According to the communicative type the sentence is exclamatory.

 

3. “Where are you going?” ― “To the library”.

Where are you going?” is a simple, two-member, complete, extended sentence. According to the communicative type, the sentence is interrogative. It is a special question.

To the library” is a simple, two-member, elliptical sentence. The subject and the predicate are omitted. The sentence is extended.

THE SUBJECT

1. Two thousand passengers were believed to be injured.

Two thousand passengers is phrasal subject, expressed by a noun phrase with a numeral.

2. To understand is to forgive.

To understand is a simple subject, expressed by an Infinitive.

3. Your doing this is very strange.

Your doing this is a complex subject, expressed by a gerundial construction.

4. What he expected began.

What he expected is a clausal subject.

THE OBJECT

1. Meet her tomorrow.

 

Her is a simple object, expressed by a personal pronoun.

 

2. I saw a strange man there.

A strange man is a phrasal object, expressed by a nominal phrase.

 

3. She remembered meeting her last year.

Meeting her is a phrasal object, expressed by a gerundial phrase.

 

4. I want to have my photo taken.

My photo taken is a complex object, expressed by a construction with Participle II.

 

5. He insisted on my telling the truth.

My telling is a complex object, expressed by a Gerundial construction.

 

6. I want him to stay.

Him to stay is a complex object, expressed by an Infinitive construction.

 

7. Ron was amazed by what he saw there.

What he saw there is a clausal object.

 

 

THE ATTRIBUTE

 

  1. There were no signs of his supporting us.

Of his supporting us is a complex postmodifying attribute. It is expressed by a gerundial construction.

  1. She is a clever girl.

Clever is a simple premodifying attribute. It’s expressed by an adjective.

THE ADVERBIAL MODIFIER

  1. John lives in London.

In London is a simple adverbial modifier of place, non-detached.

  1. Despite his smile, the man was difficult to deal with.

Despite his smile is a phrasal adverbial modifier of concession, detached.

3. It being late, he left the garden.

It being late is a complex detached adverbial modifier of reason, it is expressed by the Nominative Absolute Construction with Participle I.


Date: 2015-12-17; view: 1102


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