Stylistic Differentiation of Phraseological Units. Stylistic Functioning of Phraseological Units.
Galperin: There are two tendencies dealing with the problem of word-combination: 1) the analytical tendency which seeks to deserver one component from another (widely used in lexicology) 2) the synthetic tendency which seeks to integrate the parts of the combination into a stable unit (used more in stylistics) A cliché is generally defined as an expression that has become hackneyed and trite. Most of the widely recognized word-combinations which have been adopted by the language are classified as clichés. There are two conflicting ideas: lang. should always be fresh, vigorous and expressive, and, on the other hand, lang., as a common tool for intercommunication, should make use of units that are easily understood and which require little or no effort to convey the idea and to grasp it. Instead of making use of the existing means of communication, people are to coin their own lang. But many of the new-born word-combinations have been made fun of because their meaning is still obscure and many people misuse them. The set expressions are “part and parcel” of the vocabulary of the lang. and cannot be dispensed with by merely labeling them clichés (trite, stale, uninteresting). Proverbs and sayings are facts of language. Their typical features are: rhythm, sometimes rhyme and \or alliteration. But the most important feature is brevity. A proverb presupposes a simultaneous application of two meanings: the face-value or primary meaning, and an extended meaning drawn from the context, but bridled by the face-value meaning. The proverb becomes a vessel into which new content is pored. Proverbs accumulate life experience in a brief form. They are didactic and image bearing. Brevity manifests itself in the omission of connectives (out of sight , out of mind). Pr-s and sayings will never lose their freshness and vigour. They may be handled not in their fixed form but with modifications (to catch the reader’s attention). It’a EM when a proverb is used in its original form and a SD when it is modified. An epigram is a stylistic device akin to a proverb with the only difference that it has been coined by individuals, while proverbs are the coinage of the people. Epigrams are tense, witty, pointed statements, showing the ingenious turn of mind of the originator. They have a generalizing function and are self-sufficient. The most characteristic feature – the sentence gets accepted as a word-combination and often becomes part of the lang.as a whole. A quotation is a repetition is a repetition of a phrase or statement from a book, speech and the like used by way of authority, illustration, proof or as a basis for further speculation on the matter in hand. If repeated frequently, it may be recognized as an epigram, if it has at least some of the linguistic properties of the latter. Quotations are usually marked off by inverted commas, dashes, italics or other graphical means. A quotation is the exact reproduction of an actual utterance made by a certain author. In a text utterances undergo some changes, they become part of the general sense of the text. It may acquire a new shade of meaning. Quotations unlike epigrams needn’t be short. An allusion is an indirect reference to a historical, literary, mythological, biblical fact of everyday life made in the course of speaking or writing. As a rule no indication of the source is given. An allusion is only a mention of a word or phrase which may be regarded as the key-word of the utterance. The primary meaning of the word or phrase which is assumed to be known serves as a vessel into which new meaning is poured. So there is also a kind of interplay between two meanings. Allusions are based on the accumulated experience and knowledge of the writer who presupposes a similar experience and knowledge in the reader. Allusions and quotations may be termed nonce-set-expressions because they are used only for the occasion. Allusions are used in different styles, but their deciphering is not always easy as there’s no indication of the source.
Linguistic fusions are set phrases the meaning of which is understood only from the combination as a whole. The stylistic device of decomposition of fused set phrases consists in making each word of the combination acquire its literal meaning which leads to the realization of an absurdity. (It was raining cats and dogs, and two kittens and a puppy landed on my window-sill).
39. Phonetic Expressive Means & Stylistic Devices.
Galperin: Each sound may cause a definite feeling or emotion or state of mind. The arrangement of sounds carries a definite aesthetic function. Phonetic SDs are: 1) Onomatopoeia is a combination of speech-sounds which aims at imitating sounds produced in nature, by things, by people and by animals. Two varieties of onomatopoeia: direct (words that imitate natural sounds (buzz, bang, cuckoo, ding-dong)) and indirect (combination of sounds the aim of which is to make the sound of the utterance an echo of its sense (And the silken, sad, uncertain rustling of each purple curtain)) Indirect onomat., unlike alliteration, demands some mention of what makes the sound, as rustling of curtains. 2) Alliteration is a phonetic stylistic device which aims at imparting a melodic effect to the utterance. The essence lies in the repetition of similar sounds. Alliteration is generally regarded as a musical accompaniment of the author’s idea, supporting it with some vague emotional atmosphere which each reader interprets for himself. Alliteration in the English language is deeply rooted in the traditions of English folklore. In Old English poetry alliteration and rhythm were considered the basic principles of verse. Alliteration is sometimes called initial rhyme. 3) Rhyme is the repetition of identical terminal sound combinations of words. There are: a) full rhymes (the identity of the vowel sound and the following consonant sounds in a stressed syllable, as in might – right) b) incomplete rhymes: !) vowel rhymes (the vowels of the syllables in corresponding words are identical, but the consonants are different, flesh-fresh-press) !!) consonant rhymes (vise versa, worth – forth, tale – tool) Modifications in rhyming sometimes go so far as to make one word rhyme with a combination of words. Compound rhyme may beset against what is called eye-rhyme where only letters and not the sounds are identical (love-prove, have-grave). According to the way the rhymes are arranged within the stanza, certain models have crystallized: 1) couplets – when the last words of two successive lines are rhymed. This is commonly marked aa. 2) Triple rhymes – aaa 3) Cross rhymes – abab 4) Framing or ring rhymes – abba. Internal rhyme – when the rhyming words are placed not at the ends of the lines but within the line. Thus rhyme breaks the line into two distinct parts (I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers). Rhyme has two contradictory functions: 1) Dissevering (like in internal rhyme) 2) Consolidating (uniting) 4) Rhythm exists in all spheres of human activity and assumes different forms. It’s a mighty weapon in stirring up emotions. Rhythm is primary a periodicity. It is a deliberate arrangement of speech into regularly recurring units intended to be grasped as a definite periodicity which makes rhythm a SD. Rhythm is the main factor which brings order into the utterance. Rhythm presupposes oppositions: long, short; stressed, unstressed; high, low). Metre is any form of periodicity in verse. It’s an ideal phenomenon characterized by its strict regularity, consistency and unchangeability. Rhythm is flexible and sometimes an effort is required to perceive it. In classical verse it is perceived at the background of the metre. In accented verse – by the number of stresses in a line. In prose – by the alternation of similar syntactical patterns. Rhythm intensifies and specifies emotions. Permissive deviations from the given metre are called modifications of the rhythmical pattern. Rhythm reveals itself most conspicuously in music, dance and verse. The most observable rhythmical patterns in prose are based on the use of certain stylistic syntactical devices, such as enumeration, repetition, parallel construction and chiasmus. Arnold: + Assonance (or vocal alliteration) is the repetition of stressed vowels within a line or a phrase or at the end of it in the form of an incomplete rhyme. Rhyme. Sound repetition is the main feature that tells poetry from prose. Repetitions may be euphonic (rhythm, alliteration, refrain (ďđčďĺâ), assonance, dissonance, anaphora, epiphora, paronomasia, parallel constructions) and metrical (foot, meter, stanza). Rhymes can be divided: 1) male (last syllable stressed) 2) female (next to the last syllable is stressed) 3) dactylic (third syllable from the end is stressed) Incomplete rhymes: 1)assonance – 1st type in Galperin 2) consonance – 2d type, 3) dissonance (unstressed vowels and consonants coincide while stressed don’t, devil-evil) Rhymes: 1)poor (few syllables, by-cry) 2) rich (many, brevity – longevity)