Task 2Look at these words and answer the question:
Is there anything special about the way we should read and pronounce them?
through foreign write export chemist St.Petersburg
right sign wrong import technology
Task 3 Find in the text the words that follow the verbs below:
a) to initiate
b) to levy
c) to regulate
d) to stimulate
e) to discover
f) to be engaged in
g) to work out
h) to issue
i) to collect
j) to approve
k) to combine
l) to form
Task 4Find the words or phrases in the text which mean the following:
a) to be involved in some activity
b) to start
c) to collect by authority
d) to choose for a post
e) to find out
f) the laws
h) tax on certain goods
i) to come into force
Task 5Give the Russian equivalents of the following:
a) …the development of customs laws…
b) …to initiate reforms …
c) …”On levying customs duties”…
d) …to be based on previous legislation…
e) …to arrange customs procedures…
f) …to come into effect…
g) …to predate …
h) … powerful merchants…
i) …to hand down…
j) …to keep out contraband…
k) …a public figure…
Task 6 Complete the sentences.
1. He initiated customs reforms …
2. It was the first attempt …
3. He was sure that protectionist tariff …
4. It was based on previous legislation and …
5. He was one of the first to discover …
Task 7 Answer the questions:
1. When did the word tamozhnya appeare?
2. What did the word tamga mean?
3. Who was given the right to collect duties?
4. How long has Russia had the Customs Service?
5. When was the first Russian Customs Statute handed down?
6. Where were foreigners allowed to trade?
7. When were the main Russian state institutions formed?
8.What reform did Alexei Mikhailovitch initiate?
9. What was the New Trade Statute based on?
10.What was Commerce Board engaged in?
11. What did D.I.Mendeleev think about the protectionist tariff?
Task 8 Say whether the following statements are true or false. Correct the false statements.
1. The word tamga meant a customs tax.
2. The Russian Customs Service appeared in the times of Mongol-Tatar yoke.
3. In Kievan Rus, no taxeswere collected at the frontiers of individual princedoms.
4. Collecting duties was the only function of the Customs.
5. The first Russian Customs Statute was handed down in the XVII century.
6. The customs legislation has always been loyal to foreign traders.
7. The New Trade Statute of 1677 was worked out by D.I.Mendeleev.
Task 9 Complete the text with suitable prepositions if necessary and answer the questions:
British Customs service can also boast _____ some famous people who worked for the customs.
Poet Robert Burns (1759-1796) was an excise officer _____ 1789 _____ 1796. Excise officers visited _____ local traders, calculated the amount of money due and issued vouchers stating the amount payable. It was hard work with daily rounds _____ foot or horseback. They worked full day or _____ shifts. Because of the high level of duty _____ spirits, control _____ whisky and gin production was very important.
The excise collector made his rounds eight times _____ a year collecting duty over a wide area. They usually set up office _____ an inn where tradesmen paid the duty. It was a dangerous job: _____ collectors were often attacked and robbed.
1. What kind of work did Robert Burns do at the Customs?
2. Why did customs officers visit local traders?
3. Why was the control of whisky and gin production so important?
4. Where did excise collectors set up their offices?
5. Why was excise collectors’ job so dangerous?
Task 10Look up the words in a dictionary andread the text:
History of Smuggling in the UK
The history of smuggling dates back to the Middle Ages and reached its peak in the reign of James I. Smuggling was easy because the customs officers were unable to cope with it adequately as on land they were far too few, and at sea, their ships were slow and less easy to handle. In addition, many of smugglers worked in large armed bands.
With the passing time, methods of smuggling were changing, and the smugglers no longer relied on large armed ships fighting their way through, handing over their contraband to armed gangs. Instead they sank their goods near the shore, when the danger threatened, and picked them up later, or stored them in caves. When contraband was landed, it had to be hidden until it could be disposed of. Many of the old inns were very convenient for it.
The White Horse Inn at Gorleston, Norfolk, was the headquarters of a smuggling gang. Riding officer Hacon was appointed to that area, and he went straight to the White Horse and announced that he was going to put down smuggling with a firm hand.
Captain Legatt waged fifty guineas that he would deliver 100kg of smuggled tobacco at the officer’s house without his knowledge within fourteen days. Hacon accepted the challenge and put on extra guards. There was much interest among the town people.
Several days passed and nothing happened. Ships came and went, but there was no sign of tobacco.
Once a little schooner came in. Three men came ashore in a boat. Only one of them spoke a little English and it seemed that a man on the ship was very ill. The next day a message was sent ashore that the man was dead. A funeral procession was formed because the dead man had wished to be buried there.
Meanwhile the fourteenth day was drawing to a close. People were beginning to laugh at the smugglers. Then the Captain appeared and shook hands with Hacon.
“Well,” he said. “You owe me fifty guineas, I think.
“The boot is on the other foot*”, said Hacon with a smile.
“I think you’ll find the tobacco ready for you at home”, said Legatt. “That poor dead sailor who wished to be buried here – well, you go home and have a look – and keep the coffin as a small present”, and he roared with laughter.
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Task 11 a) Find examples of comparatives in the text, remember the rules and make comparatives and superlatives of the following adjectives: