Border Studies and New Word Orders- Analyzing the Global Process
New theoretical approaches to the concept of the border emerged due to the globalization process. First, today it is impossible to study border only at the country level. Secondly, borders can't be studied separately from identity problems (self-identifications of people from a certain social and/or territorial group, first of all an ethnic one) (Kolosov, 313-314).
So the concepts of the border and cross-border territories are being discussed as well. P. Ya. Baklanov and S. S. Ganzey define the border territory as a territory adjacent to a state border where political, infrastructure, economic, social, and cultural, as well as some administrative functions of interaction of neighboring countries are performed. For this territory the influence of a neighboring state, its economy and politics is the strongest (Baklanov, Ganzey, 28). A cross-border region is a uniform ethnocultural space with the region located on the other side of the border. The regions being formed on both sides of borders or formed during the long period as regions with uniform ethnocultural space, old connections and owing to any circumstances rather recently divided by a border can be considered as cross-border ones (Gerasimenko, 80). A cross-border region is a set of cooperating political subjects (small states,
administrative-territorial units and municipalities of states). Cross-border regions have intensive development during the globalization. They appear due to cooperation between territories of different countries, not due to proximity of any kind (Kornevets, 17). Recently such concepts as transnational region and euroregion emerged as well.
Transnational region is a set of states located rather close to each other and cooperating on a contractual basis. A border is not enough for a cross-border region to appear. It is necessary that subjects from both sides of a border would be interested in cooperation, i. e. in developping political, economic, social etc. cooperation without any obstacles.
Euroregion is a structure containing border regions of several European countries. This form of cross-border cooperation appeared in the countries of the European Union in the late 50s when the cross-border processes, e. g. fusion of border settlements into agglomerations and creation of unified systems of settlement and production, started. These processes initiated the cooperation to solve the problems of migrations across borders, infrastructure development, environment protection, and distribution of taxes. Thus, we can say that euroregions appeared from below, on the basis of cross-border networks of settlement, production, trade and services, social contacts, cooperation between public organizations, regional and local authorities (Limology, 73). Creation of euroregions with the Russian participation started in the middle of the 90s. In January, 1998 the Government of the Republic of Karelia proposed the euroregion of "Karelia" that was supported by leaders of the border Regional Unions of Finland (Northern Karelia, Kainuu and Northern Pokhyanmaa) (Limology, 74).
Globalization processes create new identities. So, according to the founders of the concept of regional construction one of the main factors of successful Euro-Arctic Barents cooperation and the region as a whole consists in formation of the common northern identity and international feeling of unification. The main factors for such unification are the severe climatic conditions, vulnerable nature, long distance from the national centers, low population density, as well as historical and trading contacts between Norway and the Russian Pomorje and genetic affinity of the Finnish and the Karelian ethnos.