Basic categories of the text. Logical relations within a work of fiction
A be absent from
be accustomed to
be acquainted with
to admire (someone) for something
be afraid of
to agree with (someone) about something
be angry at/with
to apologize to (someone) for something
to apply to (a place) for something
to approve of
to argue with (someone) about something
to arrive at (a building, a room)
to arrive in (a city, a country)
to ask (someone) for something
to ask (someone) about something
B be bad for
to believe in
to belong to
to borrow (something) from someone
C be clear to
to compare (X) to/with (Y)
to complain to (someone) about something
to consist of
D to depend on/upon (someone) for something
be different from
to dream about/of
E be engaged to
to excuse (someone) for something
F be familiar to
to forgive (someone) for something
G be to get rid of
to graduate from
H to happen to
to hear from
to hear about/of
to help (someone) with something
to hope for
be hungry for
I to insist on
be interested in
to introduce (someone) to someone
to invite (someone) to something
be involved in
K be kind to
to know about
L to laugh at
to listen to
to look at
to look after
to look for
to look in
to look forward to
M be mad at
the matter with
N be nice to
P to pay for
be polite to
to protect (X) from (Y)
be proud of
Q be qualified for
R be ready for
to rely on/upon
be responsible for
S be satisfied with
to search for
to separate (X) from (Y)
be similar to
to speak to/with (someone) about something
to stare at
T to talk to/with (someone) about something
be terrified of/by
to thank (someone) for something
be thirsty for
to travel to
W to wait for
to wait on
be worried about
A ask out …………………………….. ask someone to go on a date
C call back ……………………………return a phone call
call off …………………………….. cancel
call on ……………………………. ask to speak in class
call up ……………………………. make a phone call
cross out …………………………. draw a line through
D do over ………………………….. do again
drop in (on) ……………………… visit without calling first or without an
drop out (of) ……………………. stop attending school
F figure out ………………………. find a solution to a problem
fill in …………………………… complete a sentence by writing in a blank
fill out …………………………. write information in a form (e.g. an
fill up ………………………….. fill completely with gas, water, coffee
find out ………………………… discover information
fool around (with) …………….. have fun while wasting time
G get along (with) ……………….. have a good relationship with
get back (from) ………………. return from a trip
get in (into) …………………… enter a car, a taxi
get off ………………………… leave a bus, an airplane, a train, a subway
get on …………………………. enter a bus, an airplane, a train, a subway
get out (of) ……………………. leave a car, a taxi
get over ……………………….. recover from an illness
get through (with) …………….. finish
give back ……………………… return something to someone
give up ………………………… quit doing something or quit trying
grow up (in) …………………… become an adult
H hand in ………………………… give homework, test papers to a teacher
hand out ………………………. give something to this person, to that
person, then to another person, etc.
hang up ………………………… 1. hang on a hanger or a hook. 2. end a
a phone call
K keep on ………………………… continue
L leave out ……………………….. omit
look out (for) ……………………be careful
look up …………………………. look for information in a reference
M make up ……………………….. invent
P pay back ………………………. return money to someone
pick up ………………………… lift
put away ………………………. put something in its usual or proper place
put back ………………………. return something to its original place
put down ……………………… stop holding or carrying
put off ………………………… postpone
put on …………………………. put clothes on one’s body
put out ………………………… extinguish (stop) a fire, a cigarette
R run into ………………………... meet by chance
run out (of) …………………… finish the supply of something
S shut off ………………………. stop a machine, a light, turn off
start over …………………….. start again
T take off ……………………… remove clothes from one’s body
tear down …………………….. destroy a building
tear out (of) …………………… detach, tear along a dotted line
tear up ………………………… tear into small pieces
throw away/out ……………….. put in the trash, discard
try on …………………………. put on clothing to see if it fits
turn down …………………….. decrease the volume
turn off ……………………….. stop a machine, a light, shut off
turn on ……………………….. begin a machine or a light
turn up ……………………….. increase the volume
W wake up ………………………. stop sleeping
watch out (for) ……………….. be careful
write down …………………… write a note on a piece of paper
BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR. YOU CAN’T DO WITHOUT IT
Ó÷åáíîå ïîñîáèå ïî ãðàììàòèêå àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà
Ïîäïèñàíî â ïå÷àòü 2008. Ôîðìàò 60õ84 1/16.
Áóìàãà îôñåòíàÿ. Ïå÷àòü îôñåòíàÿ.
Óñë. ïå÷. ë. Çàê. Òèð. 400
Òèïîãðàôèÿ Íèæåãîðîäñêîãî ãîñóíèâåðñèòåòà.
Ëèö. ÏÄ ¹ 18-0099 îò 04.05.2001.
603000, Í. Íîâãîðîä, óë. Áîëüøàÿ Ïîêðîâñêàÿ , 17
twanging accent laced with smatterings of Occitan, the regional language of south-westernFrance. Boissiere is on home territory: the south-west of France is duck country. There is hardly a restaurant not offering the fowl in some form - foie gras, confit de canard, magret de canard, duck wings, duck salad, duck with prunes, duck with beans, duck with duck - the permutations are many and varied.
What cannot be eaten is turned into manure, lipstick, feather pillows, down duvets or powder puffs. There is a joke in the business that the only part of a duck that cannot be sold is its quack.
Boissiere's hybrid mulard ducks - a cross between barbary and peking breeds - are in any case mute and all male (female duck livers apparently not be-ingup to the task). At his farm, near Frespech, 30km north-east of the town of Agen in the departement of Lot-et-Garonne, Boissiere believes that the foie gras controversy is symbolic of the modern-day clash between urban and rural communities.
He insists that force-feeding ducks dates back to the time of the Egyptians around 2500BC and causes the birds no suffering. "Our mantra is respect. Respect for the environment, respect for the birds, respect for the customers. You cannot force-feed a duck if it is afraid or suffering.
"Human beings raise animals to feed themselves ... In the years after the war, when there was a shortage of food, people were used to raising, killing, bleeding, skinning, plucking and cooking an animal. Today there is a rupture between those who live in urban areas and those who live in the country. Everything is sanitised. People take their meat from the supermarket fridge and don't even touch it. They touch a plastic wrapping. They have lost their bearings about where that meat has come from."
Boissiere says that the California ruling is wrong, and wants the French government to fight it. "I believe this is a misunderstanding; it's been done because it's an easy vote-winner, but it's based on ignorance of the facts. Anyone who thinks otherwise can come here and see for themselves."
Brigitte Gothiere, of the group Stop Gavage, could not disagree more. "We are not talking about giving the right to vote to ducks. We are talking about respect for a living thing. The ducks used for foie gras have never, ever migrated. They are selected for their ability to stock fat in the liver as opposed to the tissue around the liver. The producers argue that
force-feeding is reversible and does not make them sick. This is not true.
"If the gavage is fine and natural, why don't the producers show people? The only argument this multimillion-euro industry can fall back on is that it's tradition."
Boissiere's current batch of two-day-old ducks will be producing foie gras for Christmas, when the delicacy is as traditional in France as turkey is in Britain. His fresh foie gras is currently selling at ˆ43 a kilo; a 6oog jar of traditional whole foie gras costs ˆ64. "And here's the bad news of the day," he tells the mostly French visitors to his farm. "We have to kill the ducks to get the foie gras." They laugh the laugh of the converted, and then head for the farm shop.
Gothiere is not too discouraged. "We're delighted with the California ban. It will take time for the French to lose their taste for foie gras, but we'll keep on fighting to change their mentality," she said. "We know they love it, but the pleasure is not worth the suffering. And you cannot use tradition as an excuse."
FR = fine cuisine
Foic Gras - Memory
But controversy: foie gras
What is? goose/duck liver
How made? force feeding -> liver swell lOx -> creamy pate (expensive: 64ˆ)
Arguments for (producers):
1) natural (gorging before migration)
2) man always fattens animals
Arguments against (animal welfare activists)
1) cruel, inhumane -^ inflict physical damage
2) past not an excuse
Fuel to fire: CAL ban
Key Word diagram
I gorge always
—t~ "— CAL ban
I physical damage no excuse
Foic Gras - Consecutive (omins)
Fr claim to best cuisine - croissants/pain au chocolat (breakfast)
- camembert/baguette (lunch)
- coq au vin:bordeaux (dinner)
- french chefs -> top restaurants But controversy foie-gras:„ CAL ban
1) what is /how made - 200g com mix/day -> 1kg
- -> fat build-up liver -> - rich pate
- only males (why?) - lucky female?
2) nature of ban (cf UK, DE, IT ,FI ,SV, produce vs sell) -> anger in France
Arguments producers vs animal welfare activists Producers
1) natural (gorge before migrate) -> no pain
2) tradition (man has always fattened cf Egypt 2500BC)
3) economic benefits - FR = 75% total production
ˆ1.7bn 100,000 jobs
Animal welfare activists
1) f-g geese/ducks don't migrate so don't gorge
2) even if no pain, damage to liver = discomfort (like obese human)
3) tradition not valid argument (dog/cock-fighting - society changes)
Argument continue (Fr president contest - how?) CAL not big consumer but impact on image? Hurry while stocks last
Foie Gras - simultaneous (12mins)
US - FR relations - 18C US War of Independence/revolutionaries -21C Gulf War (boycott)
2012 -^ CAL ban - passed 2004
- $1000 fine
- nature of ban (cf UK, DE, IT ,FI ,SV, produce vs sell)
what is /how made? - (before slaughter) 200g corn mix/day -> 1kg
- -> fat build-up liver (500g/10x) -> - rich pate
- price! (ˆ64)
- by-products (manure, feather pillows, down duvet, lipstick(!))
- only males (why?) - lucky female?
Ban fuel arguments
Arguments producers vs animal welfare activists Producers
1) natural (gorge before migrate) -> no gag reflex -> no pain
2) tradition (man has always fattened cf Egypt 2500BC, Romans)
3) economic benefits - FR = 19000 tonnes/yr = 75% total production
2) even if no pain, damage to liver -> discomfort (like obese human)
-> breathing/ disease
-> commission study 1998 (20x>)
3) tradition not valid argument (dog/cock-fighting - society changes)
CAL not big consumer but impact on image? Argument continue (Fr president contest - how?)
Comfort - CAL not unanimous ('Foieking')
Basic categories of the text. Logical relations within a work of fiction
2.1. Text as a communicative unit. Basic categories of the text.
2.2. Notion of text’s divisibility.
2.3. Notion of cohesion.
2.4. Notion of coherence. Types of coherent ties (isotopic relations; referential identity proper; partial identity; semantic affinity).
2.5. Centrifugal and centripetal forces within a work of art. Notions of prospection and of retrospection.
2.6. Anthropocentricity of a work of fiction and its local and temporal reference of a work of fiction.
2.7. Notion of concept, conceptuality of the text.
2.8. Heterogeneous multi-channel informative richness of the text.
2.9. Systemacy of a work of fiction.
2.10. Integrity/completeness of a work of art.
2.11. Category of modality of a work of art.
2.12. Pragmatic orientation of a work of art.
Generally speaking, a category is a specifically defined division in a system of classification; a class of objects.
Being analyzed in the system of generalized functional categories, a text can be qualified as the highest communicative unit. This is an integral unit consisting of communicative-functional elements organized in a system aimed at realizing of the author’s communicative intention.
A textual category is a classificatory structural unit or property of a text.
Textual categories (content, functional, structural, communicative, etc.) being essentially different form an integral unity which is not equal to the sum of its components.
The text is a well-organized system, in which everything is tied together and interrelated. At the same time, the text is divisible: the text’s being a complete stable system provides for its formal (architectonic) and substantial (compositional) segmentation.
Cohesion can be defined as a process that connects sentences in a text. This term is applied for the relations among sentences and clauses of a text that are signaled by certain grammatical features.
Coherence is most often discussed in relation to the paragraph. It is a semantic-pragmatic concept that contributes to the communicative unity of the text. The borderline between cohesion and coherence is that the former (cohesion) is always realized by overt signals while the latter may be realized with or without overt signals
The term of “prospection” stands for the plot’s “cataphoric” movement forward
The term of “retrospection” stands for the plot’s “anaphoric” movement back
Regardless of the theme, problem, plot etc., a person is always in the centre of the work of art, it being absolutely anthropocentric
7. Spatio-temporal reference
All the elements of plot are connected to the time and place of action. These categories are so closely interrelated that form a unity called
The formulated idea of a work of fiction can be called its concept. Expression of a concept by artistic means is the basis of creative process. Therefore, a concept’s availability – a fictional text’s conceptuality is considered its fundamental category.
The obligatory availability of a concept accounts for a text’s exfoliation into several layers (informative channels):
1) content and factual information (CFI)
2) conceptual information (CI).
3) implication, an underlying message of the text.
The fact that local and global, micro- and macro means of the text submit to the fulfillment of a single task provides for their close interrelations and connections – i.e. Systemacy.
An author-dependent intentional completeness of a text imparts it modal and pragmatic orientation. The author can only decide where to put the “full stop”. This means that the concept is formed, the way to its understanding traced, the communication is over, and the system – closed.
The author’s selectivity in the choice of the object of description.
The modality of the text is not only displayed through modal and appraisal words (although they are very important to indicate the signs of author’s modality) but also through the choice of characteristics to represent some objects; through the choice of objects of narration reflective of an author’s milieu and world picture.
12. Pragmatic orientation
The pragmatic orientation of text is established through such an organization of the textual system elements, which provides for readers’ attraction to the author’s position (expressed through the concept).
2.1. Text as a communicative unit (after E.G.Fomenko, pp. 7-8, V.A.Kuharenko, pp. 68 and on). The notion of interpretation has been cherished in literary studies for a long time. The latest suggestions for renewal of the analysis of literature and discourse have proved that a full-scale study of the actual uses of literature will need increasingly explicit and systematic description of textual structures (7). Also, the notion of interpretation should be reformulated in terms of precise models of textual communication.
First and foremost, modern linguistics has shifted from sentence into text grammar. It takes into account structures beyond the sentence boundary. Such structures are called “supraphrasal units”, “prosaic stanzas”, “complex syntactic whole”.
In spite of terminological discrepancies, most of the scholars agree to distinguish the basic characteristics of this phenomenon: two or more complete sentences merge into a larger-scale unit for the purpose of expressing some logical-semantic unity. This is a section of a speech chain, characterized by sense, meaning and structural completeness. In it a definite piece of information is being introduced, developed and completed. Accordingly, in supraphrasal unit, sentences are distinguished, introducing the topic, developing it and summarizing. In the first part of the unity we get to know some object, in the last one we again come across it, having been enriched with the data obtained through the intermediate one. Obviously, this is not the only pattern of SPU construction for it can only consist of two parts (the introducing and the completing one, or the introducing and the developing one).
E.g.: Roland picked out a tiny pearl handled knife with a blade of soft silver folded into it. Sophie took it from him. When she opened the blade to show him, the whole thing was still no more than four inches long" (W. Golding. Darkness Visible).
There is a close connection between the sentences in the SPU. It is within the unity that a pronoun substitutes for a noun, an auxiliary verb for a meaningful verb, an adverb for an extended adverbial modifier, etc; a common grammar tense, voice, mood is preserved. The decoding of synsematic words as a SPU part is held here as well. And what is even more important, SPU develops a common single microtheme. Such a substantial and formal unity and independence enables us to consider SPU an autosemantic unit of the whole text, the upper rank of the hierarchical line: “word” – “sentence – supraphrasal unit”.
External characteristics of a SPU coincide with a paragraph. At the same time, they can not be equated. SPU is first and foremost a linguistic unit, while a paragraph is a compositional one.
As a matter of fact, the structure of a work of art can be regarded either as a cohesion of the plot chains, or as a cohesion of text segments, shaped and completed in a certain way.
Thus, it is appropriate we differentiate the “composition” from “architectonics”. The composition is defined as the plot development in terms of exposition, knot, climax and dénouement and/or change of points of view. The architectonics of a text is the cohesion of its paragraphs.
The connection of text compositional elements is a logical-semantic one. The ties between paragraphs are more intricate, for they can be either logical-semantic or intonation, rhythmical, lexical, semantic.
2.2. Notion of text’s divisibility. The text is not a chaotic piling up the language units of different levels. This is a well-organized system, in which everything is tied together and interrelated. At the same time, the text is by no means an indivisible monolith. The text’s systemacy and statefulness provides for its formal (architectonic) and substantial (compositional) segmentation. However, the autosemantic potential of paragraphs is rather limited because they can only be interpreted as a part of the whole text. Thus the category of the text divisibility is closely connected with the notion of cohesion.
2.3. Notion of cohesion. Cohesion can be defined as a process that connects sentences in a text. This term is applied for the relations among sentences and clauses of a text that are signaled by certain grammatical features. Cohesive ties vary in the kinds of mental processes they can express. The involved linguistic forms include:
- pronouns and other pro-forms;
- emphases and some others.
E.g. “(1) He came into the room to shut the windows while we were still in bed (2) and I saw he looked ill. (3) He was shivering, (4) his face was white, and (5) he walked slowly as though it ached to move” (E.Hemingway).
It is clear that the underlined items refer to the same person. This anaphoric function of he and his gives connection to the independent clauses, so that we interpret them as a whole. The pronouns constitute a text, or rather, form part of the same text. The pronouns he and his are identical in reference, or co-referential (cohesive).At each stage they overtly express the points of contact with what has gone before. Anaphora does not by itself constitute cohesion, but it marks which clauses are related in this manner.
Generally, cohesion is defined as a “semantic-syntactic concept manifested by overt grammatical and lexical signals of ties in the text” (9)
The term cohesion is to be told from the term coherence. Cohesion is a formal unity – “âíåøíÿÿ ñïàÿííîñòü” (Ê.Êîæåâíèêîâà), while coherence is the text’s “internal integrity” (I.R.Galperin), substantial connectivity.
2.4. Notion of coherence. Types of coherent ties (isotopic relations; referential identity proper; partial identity; semantic affinity).
Coherence is most often discussed in relation to the paragraph. It is a semantic-pragmatic concept that contributes to the communicative unity of the text. The borderline between cohesion and coherence is that the former is always realized by overt signals while the latter may be realized with or without overt signals.
Coherent ties are expressed by semantic relations, which are different in their nature.
In the layer of text coherence two classes of semantic relations are usually distinguished:
1) isotopic relations;
2) logical relations.
Isotopic relations exist between two or more related items in cohesive clauses, which refer to the same person, thing or situation.
F. Daneš divides isotopic relations into three groups:
1.Referential identity proper;
Referential identity proper
To the first group belong isotopic chains whose second component brings nothing new about the identity referred to be the first component (e.g. informatively empty pronominal repetition).
The referential identity proper group is covered by:
a) recurrence (repetition of the same word or phrase);
b) pronominalization (anaphoric and less often, cataphoric);
d) synonyms (with non-sharp borderline towards hyponymy and hyperonymy)
Partial identity is based on the principle of synonymic substitution:
a) one entity is referred to by a proper name, the other by a common noun;
b) the substitutive relation is based on the hierarchical structure of vocabulary;
c) the relation is based on metaphor (if the metaphor stands in “component one” position, then the non-metaphorical “component two” deciphers the metaphor; if it stands in “component two position”, the metaphorical expression normally contains a signal of identification;
d) the choice of “component two” is motivated by the content of the preceding context: “on a chilly day a sparrow was sitting on the wall. The poor creature was shivering” /
The isotopic relation of semantic affinity includes:
- semantic cognation (similarity);
- semantic contiguity.
It is based on the inner organization of vocabulary.
Referential identity proper:
“That’s a different thermometer. On that thermometer thirty-seven is normal. On this kind it’s ninety-eight (E. Hemingway)”
“The last blot fell on the soaked blotting paper, and the draggled fly lay in and did not stir. The back legs were stuck to the body; the front legs were not to be seen” (K.Mansfield).
“Old Woodifiled paused, but the boss made no reply. Only a quiver of eyelids showed that he heard”(K.Mansfield).
Logical connecters link whole clauses, or propositions. They are classified into separate types. Like isotopic relations, logical relations can be expressed by with or without grammatical signals. The well-known indicators of logical relations are conjunctions. Conjunctive elements are cohesive not in themselves but indirectly but virtue of their specific meaning. The simple form of conjunction is and. When the “and” relation operates between sentences, it is usually restricted to just a pair of sentences. This provides an indication of the difference between “and” as a structural coordinate relation and “and” as a cohesive (additive one).
e.g.: “He was critical about women. A single defect – a thick ankle, a hoarse voice, a glass eye was enough to make him utterly indifferent. And here far the fist time in his life he was beside a girl who seemed the incarnation of physical perfection”. (F.S. Fitzgerald).
In this paragraph, one clause is linked with a conjunction; introduced by ‘and’, it stands in contrast to “he was critical about women. A single defect..”. The first two sentences are linked without a logical connector; both of them are explanatory of what is stated in the third sentence.
Logical relations between sentences include:
- concession and some others.
Enumerative conjuncts (“furthermore, far more importantly, etc.”) indicate a listing of what is being said. Additive adjuncts specify that part of the sentence is an addition to what has been previously implied. Concessive conjuncts signal the unexpected, surprising nature of what is being said. An inference from what is implicit in the preceding sentence or sentences can be indicated by an inferential conjunct [Quirk et al, 1982: 251-256]. Let us illustrate the logical relations of result and enumeration:
“So now it was all over he thought. So now he would never had a chance to finish it. So this way the way it ended in a bickering over a drink” (E.Hemingway).
2.5. “Centrifugal” and “centripetal” forces within a work of art. Notions of prospection and of retrospection. A text’s divisibility and coherence are directly related to the exertion of its centrifugal and centripetal forces. On the one hand, a text is not homogeneous: in it different plot lines are being developed, topics intermingled, points of view changed, different stylistic devices introduced. Thus, the text is getting loose due to centrifugal forces dominating. On the other hand, all these means are submitted to carrying out a single overall task: segments scattered all over the text unite through their reference to a common character, to a common local and spatial continuum. In such a way centripetal forces actively come into play. The availability of these two oppositely directed forces can be explained due to the ontological discrepancy between a text’s linear unfolding and the multidimensional nature of reality it is reflective of.
The major centripetal force contributing to a fictional text’s coherence is that is its plot consecutive development. On the contrary, the plot’s diffusivity results in the prevalence of centrifugal forces. Repetition turns out to be the basic means of their neutralization and establishment of coherence. There is no by accident that the modernist prose aimed to show the world as chaos abounds in repetitions. Without moving forward the narration, they prevent it from dissipation as a reader is returned to the work’s objective pivot.
The inevitable and insoluble unity of centrifugal and centripetal forces is brightly expressed through textual categories of prospection and retrospection. The term of “prospection” stands for the plot’s “cataphoric” movement forward, while retrospection is that is the “anaphoric” movement back to some initial point. As a rule, the fictional world is reflective of the real world’s consecutive development. Thus the cataphoric type of the plot organization prevails. At the same time, the cases of prospection and retrospection are quite frequent.
In a narrow sense, prospection is observed as the “flash-forward” anticipation of future events, while the retrospection is the turn back to some events, which took place in the past – a “flash-back”. Both of them violate the local-spatial continuum; tear up immediate meaningful ties of two contact utterances. Nevertheless, thanks to the scrupulous
E.g. "Íå strode into the living room feeling very cohesion, a “bridge” to the preceding (or following) segment is established. brisk and competent. He could not know, of course, that when Louise did get home he would be out cold on the divan" (R.P.Warren, “The Cave”).
The main signal of anticipating prospection is the change of the grammar tense: namely it’s turn to the future form. Additionally, such lexical indicators are frequent as: “much later”, “it will be not once that”, etc.
There is practically no fictional text without retrospection. Its forms and duration are often to change but signals of introduction remain such as:
1) words of the thematic group of “memory”, “reminiscence”, etc.;
2) grammar tense of Past Perfect;
3) adverbs of place and time “then”, “there”, etc.
Although differently directed in temporal and ideal sense, prospection and retrospection have common characteristics:
- Both categories deal with the partial sense repetition: at first the information is presented in a folded way; then it is being unfolded.
- Both of them carry out the function of informative and sentimental enriching the present. Violating the present’s unity, they nonetheless make for its connection to the past and future.
- Both of them enable the effect of multidimensionality of the text’s main substantial universals: Human, Time, and Space.
2.6. Anthropocentricity of a work of fiction and its local and temporal reference of a work of fiction. Every communicative unit is considered within a triangle of “I – now - here”. In he head of the system there is Man – a personage, a character. Whatever and whenever done in the text is dedicated to a better characterizing of a Man. Let through a character’s outlook, time and space in a work of fiction merge into an indivisible unity called “chronotop”.
E.g. "At a little town of Vevey, in Switzerland... the shore of the lake... hotels... at that time..." (J.Joyce).
Expression of time in a fictional text is characterized by interesting regularities:
- An extended system of English grammar tenses allows reducing a number of lexical temporal markers. Indication of time as such takes a little volume within the text: At noon, in summer. Writers often find them sufficient and come at once to the descriptions of nature, men, actions, etc.
- Fictional time does not exist separately from a person perceiving it.
- Fictional time as a form of substance is very much a subject to individual form of perception: the course of time is irregular: it can either fly or crawl.
- Represented in the text, the fictional time flows unevenly for a reader as well. Text segments abounding in events are perceived as dynamic and vice versa.
Space depicted in the fictional text is a relatively more independent phenomenon than the time is. Descriptions of place – the interior or the landscape can form relatively autonomous segments. However, the space in the art text is never free from a man’s presence. The phenomenon of all text categories’ submission to the task of characterizing a person results in the absolute anthropocentricity of a fictional text. Regardless of the theme, problem, plot etc. a man is always in the centre of the work of art, it being absolutely anthropocentric and local-temporal related.
2.7. Notion of concept, conceptuality of the text. Whatever is the type of linearly unfolded content and factual information, an author always submits it to the expression of the work’s main idea. Idea of the work formulated is called a concept. As far as the fictional discourse is concerned, one can find a text without a plot, without a clearly distinguished topic, etc. But there are no works without a concept. Implementation of social, moral, and aesthetic idea – a concept – by artistic means is the kernel of the creative process. Therefore, a concept’s compulsory availability – a fictional text’s conceptuality – can be considered its fundamental category. The whole of the interpretation process in fact can be represented as a meticulous search of language means expressive of the concept. The concept concentrates substantial results of the author’s mastering of reality and his/her massage.
The text’s concept is formed gradually. Every element introduced and functioning in the text (actualized language units as well as textual categories) serve to the common aim: a concept forming.
2.8. Heterogeneous multi-channel informative richness of the text. The obligatory availability of a concept accounts for a text’s exfoliation into several layers (informative channels):
1) The first one is that of content and factual information (CFI) (term by I.R. Galperin). This textual layer represents a substantial part of the communication and conveys the information in a linear way. Even incompetent readers can decipher CFI. Unfortunately, it often remains for them the only perceivable layer of fiction.
2) Content and factual information is not the purpose of the written communication. Just the other way round, it is but a means of conveying a deeper layer of conceptual information (CI). CFI compression will result in formulating the work’s topic, while CI compression gives the text’s idea.
3) There is a third layer of implication, an underlying message of the text. Being an undercurrent of the work of fiction, it gives it some additional depth and meaningfulness.
Linear, explicit and undercurrent informational flows are directed to form the layer of conceptual information. Proceeding form the abovementioned, V.A.Kuharenko states that the informativeness of a work of fiction (as a text category) should be defined as a heterogeneous multi-channel informativeness, which is only directed to the disclosure of the text’s concept.
2.9. Systemacy of a work of fiction. The fact that local and global, micro- and macro means of the text submit to the fulfillment of a single task provides for their close interrelations and connections – i.e. systemacy, which also is a categorical indication of a work of fiction:
- No element of the system exists by itself and for it self: every one is included into the unite system, which is created and acts to pursue a single goal.
- The system of a fictional text is a close one. Not a single bit of it is a subject to further development, excerption or substitution.
- The only variable part of the written communication is a reader. Multiple interpretations are only the evidence of the perception culture evolution. The work is ever closed and completed. In other words, the closeness of the text’s system is fully stipulated by an author’s intention and deals with the completion of the text generating process.
2.10. Category of unity (completion) of a work of fiction. The idea of a text’s system being closed correlates with the category of integrity as inherent in the whole of the text. In this way one can tell the text from a non-text. All the above mentioned text categories such as divisibility and coherence, prospection and retrospection, informativeness, local and temporal reference can be as well found on the lower syntactical level. On the contrary, both conceptuality and integrity are only peculiar to the whole of the text. An author-dependent intentional completeness of a text gives it a modal and pragmatic orientation. The author is a sole master here, for he/she decides where to put the full stop. This means that the concept is formed, the way to its understanding traced, the communication is over, and the system – closed.
2.11. Category of modality of a work of art. Modality is an invariable category of a fictional text. As well as there are no stylistically neutral texts, there are no texts deprived of modality. This is ontologically inherent in the text because it is a result of an author’s subjective reflection on reality. Everyone is highly selective while constructing his/her world picture. No one is able to embrace all the signs of all the objects. That’s why everyone picks out of this endless multitude those ones which fit to his/her outlook on life.
Accordingly, the modality of the text is not only displayed through modal and appraisal words (although they are very important to indicate the signs of author’s modality) but also through the choice of characteristics to represent some objects; through the choice of objects of narration reflective of an author’s milieu and world picture. The text modality comes into play before the text is created: it presumably starts from the first act of an author’s choice – that of a work’s topic and idea. Along with conceptuality, it stipulates all the stages of constructing the fictional reality, all the stages of selecting extralinguistic and linguistic material suiting for the work.
2.13. Pragmatic orientation of a work of art. A text’s pragmatic orientation (i.e. the inducement of the readers’ reactions) is very closely connected to the modality and conceptuality of the text. All the texts of all genres and functional styles account for the reciprocal action of their addressee, for a perlocutive effect (coming after illocution – a speech act). This reciprocal action can be either an outwardly expressed deed, or a speech act, or possibly, a “soul” action – a change of mind, feelings, and outlook on life.
The fiction is mostly oriented on the latter effect. The pragmatic orientation of text is established through such an organization of the textual system elements, which provides for readers’ attraction to the author’s side and convincing in author’s position (expressed through the concept).
The pragmatic orientation of the text can be expressed explicitly, when an author directly addresses the reader, invites him/her to follow the reasoning. “Dear reader” is kind of old-fashioned clichés for the purpose. However, even our contemporary, John Fowles actively persuades the reader to confirm righteousness of his words: "I would have you share my own sense" (The French Lieutenant's Woman).
More frequently, the author’s pragmatic purpose is realized not through the specially expressed reader’s involvement in the system of his arguments, but through the actualization of such elements of artistic structure, which can exert the maximum impact on the reader.