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THE FUNCTIONS OF THE INFINITIVE

Subject(To doubt everything is the lot of philosophers).It can be rendered in Russian by an infinitive, a noun or a clause. The subject follows the predicate when the sentence begins with the introductory "It" (It was pleasant to see you again).

Predicative(My intention is to find the truth). The I can also be part of the predicate (The truth is not easy to discover).

Part of a Compound Verbal Predicate.It can be part of a CV modal predicate(I must not leave this place)or part of a CV aspect predicate(with verbs denoting beginning, duration or end of the action)(She ceased to talk).

Object(She learned to sing in a music school).After the verbs "to allow, to order, to ask, to beg, to regard, to implore, to teach, to instruct" very often to objects can be found, one of which is expressed by an I (He allowed his daughter to get married). Sometimes the I can be preceded by the introductory object "it" (They found it easy to get along).

Part of a Complex Object(I've never seen them play so well before).

Attribute(I have no time to read such rubbish).It's rendered in Russian by an infinitive, a subordinate clause or a finite verb serving as the predicate of a simple sentence. The I used as an attribute often has a modal meaning (it expresses an action thought as obligatory or possible) (There must be a lot of things to make you happy). Sometimes it implies an idea of purpose (It's a nice band to listen to).

Adverbial Modifier. AM of purpose(can be introduced by "in order, so as") (I came here to ask you something), AM of result (mostly occurs after adjectives modified by the adverbs "enough, too", rarely "so (such)Е as") (He was smart enough to buy that; He was so witty as to find what to say), AM of comparison (manner)(introduced by the conjunctions "as if, as though"), in most cases the additional meaning of purpose is implied (He opened his mouth as if to pronounce something), AM of attendant circumstances(He went away only to return in some time).

Parenthesis(To tell the truth, I find her adorable).

11. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction.

The OWTIC is a construction in which the I is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case. It has the function of a Complex Object (I've never seen him reconsider his decision). In Russian a subordinate clause is used.

The OWTIC is used: 1) After verbs denoting sense perception such as "to hear, to see, to watch, to feel, to observe, to notice, etc." (I watched her enter the room), if the meaning is passive the P2 is used (I saw the house slowly built); 2) After verbs denoting mental activity ("to know, to feel, to think, to consider, to believe, to suppose, to expect, to imagine, to find, etc."), the verb "to be" is generally used after such verbs in the OWTIC (I know her to be friendly); 3) After the verbs of declaring ("to pronounce, to declare, to report") (She declared him to be the nicest person in the world); 4) After verbs denoting wishand intention("to want, to wish, to intend, to desire, to mean, to choose") (She desired him to speak to her); 5) After verbs and expressions denoting feelingand emotion ("to love, to hate, to (dis)like, can't bear, etc.") (I can't bear her to speak about him); 6) After verbs denoting orderand permission("to order, to allow, to suffer, to have, etc."), with a noun or a pronoun denoting a lifeless thing or when the I is passive (except the verbs "to have, to suffer") (He ordered his dinner to be brought to him; I won't have you speak like that to her); 7) After verbs denoting compulsion("to make (заставить), to get, to have, to cause") (The sound made me turn my head); 8) After verbs requiring prepositions (mostly "for", sometimes "on, upon" after the verb "to rely") (I rely on you to come here at nine).



 

12. The Subjective Infinitive Construction. The for-to-Infinitive Construction.

The SIC (sometimes called the Nominative-with-the-Infinitive Construction) is a construction in which the I is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case. It doesn't serve as one part of the sentence: one part has the function of the Subject and the other forms Part of a compound verbal predicate (He's been advised to rest). In Russian неопределенно-личное предложение is used.

The SIC is used with the verbs in the Passive Voice: 1) denoting sense perception ("to hear, to see, etc.") (She was heard to approach the door), a process is expressed by the P1 Indefinite Active (She was heard approaching the door); 2) denoting mental activity("to think, to consider, to know, to expect, to believe, to suppose") (He is believed to have left for London); 3) "to make" (He was made to sit down); 4) "to say, to report"(She is said to be the nicest person in the world). The SIC is used with the word-groups "to be likely, to be sure, to be certain" (She is sure to call before ten), which is rendered in Russian by a simple sentence with a modal word. It's also used with the pairs of synonyms "to seem-to appear, to happen-to chance, to prove-to turn out" (She appeared to be listening).

The FTICis a construction in which the I is in predicate relation to a noun or a pronoun preceded by the preposition "for". In Russian a subordinate clause or an I is used.

The functions of the FTIC: Subject(often with the introductory "It") (It's a shame for a man like you to act this way); Predicative(It was for me to find out); Complex object(I waited for her to call); Attribute(There's nothing for you to do but give it up); Adverbial modifier of purpose(He moved away for me to see the picture)and result(He spoke loudly for me to hear).

With the expressions "to be sorry, to be glad" the I is used only if the subject of the sentence represents at the same time the doer of the action expressed by the I (I'm glad to have seen her at last). In other cases a clause is used with these expressions (I'm glad that you have seen her at last).


Date: 2015-12-11; view: 803


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PREDICATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS WITH THE GERUND | The word order in the English sentence (position of the object, the attribute, the adverbial modifiers).
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