Controller’s actions when aircraft is departing under VMC conditions.
When an aircraft departs under VMC, visibility has to be – 5000m and more, cloud base- 450m or more.
When aircraft departs under VMC, it is informed about the route of departure and altitude (all VFR flights are executed on QNH).
The controller has to provide a pilot with the following information:
- side of the procedure turn (left or right) after departure
- route of departure out of CTR (control zone)
- depart altitude out of CTR.
After all these procedures the controller approve an aircraft to leave his frequency.
- Give the interpretation and explanation to the acronym “ASSIST”.
28.- Controller’s action when aircraft is leaving the controlled zone. – 10.4.2?
When an aircraft is leaving the controlled area which is under the controller’s control it has to be given a particular attention.
The controller shall coordinate all his actions with adjacent control units and transfer the control under an aircraft to an adjacent ATC unit by instructing a pilot to establish communication on the appropriate frequency.
KLM 127, Contact Odessa Control 134,5.
- What information shall a position report contain?
The Position Report shall contain the following elements of information:
- aircraft identification;
- time over;
- FL or altitude;
- next position and time over;
- ensuing significant point.
29.- Procedure of cancelling flights under VMC conditions. –5.9 (4444)
VFR flights may be either cancelled or changed to IFR flights. VFR flights can be prohibited to enter the controlled airspace if meteorological conditions are worse than 5000m visibility and 450m cloud base and there are other traffic operating either IMC or VMC (low ceiling or overcast conditions)
So, if there is a possibility that flight under VMC may become impracticable, an IFR flight shall be provided with alternative instructions to be complied with in the event that flight in VMC cannot be maintained for the term of the clearance.
If a pilot has the intention to change the flight rules, he has to inform the controller about his decision and the controller shall change flight plan (if available or necessary) and inform the other ATC units en-route about the changes.
- Is it necessary for a pilot to have weather forecast?
A pilot is not able to fly without having weather forecast. A pilot must have a fundamental knowledge of the atmosphere and weather behavior to avoid hazardous flight conditions. Air masses do not always perform as predicted, and weather stations are sometimes spaced rather widely apart; therefore, a pilot must understand weather conditions occurring between the stations as well as the conditions different from those indicated by weather reports.
A meteorologist can only predict the weather conditions; a pilot must decide whether his particular flight may be hazardous one, considering his type of aircraft and equipment, his own flying, experience, and physical limitations.
30. - Procedure of controller’s actions in case there are obstructions on the RW. –188.8.131.52. (4444)
- If an aircraft approaches the aerodrome and there are some obstructions on the RW, the controller informs a pilot to make a “Go around” procedure and gives a reason (e.g. RW is blocked, water patches on the RW, etc), e.g.
KLM 127. Go around. RW blocked. Climb to altitude 2000ft.
Contact approach 118.7
If a pilot departs and after receiving a take-off clearance some obstructions have appeared on the RW, the controller gives instructions to hold position or to cancel take-off.
If an aircraft has started taxiing and there are some obstructions on the RW, the controller gives an instruction to an aircraft to stop immediately (saying twice) and informs a supervisor about it.
If the speed of an aircraft is too high while taxiing and it starts stopping, it can use emergency braking. In this case a pilot can start a departure procedure again or return to stand for aircraft inspection.
In the event the aerodrome controller observes, after a take-off or landing clearance has been issued, any obstruction on the runway, such as runway incursion by an aircraft or vehicle, or animals or flocks of birds on the runway, appropriate action shall be taken:
1. in all cases inform the aircraft concerned of the obstruction and its location on the runway;
2. cancel the take-off clearance for an aircraft which has not started to roll;