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Comment on the following quotations.

1.’After the discovery of America and the construction of Suez Canal there was no other historic

development that had as deep direct and circumstantial implications as the construction of the

Siberian track did have.’ ‘La France’, 1903, Paris.

2.’God made the country, and man made the town.’ William Cowper.

3.’The Great Siberian railway breathed life into boundless Siberian lands.’Vitte.

4.’Settlers in Siberia mean everything. They are bringing life there and by cultivating virgin

lands they add millions of obscure acres to agricultural output.’Stolypin.



Read the text and tell about new facts

You’ve known about RZD Co*.

Make a plan of your answer.


RZD currently consists of 17 regional railways, frequently operating under extreme climatic conditions. Since 2001 the structural reform programme has been implemented on the Russian Railway network. The four principle goals of the reform programme are:

· reducing the cost of rail freight;

· meeting the increasing demand for rail services;

· stabilizing operations so they are safe accessible to all users as well as providing good quality service;

· creating a harmonized and integrated transport system.

The programme is to be fully carried out by 2010. The adopted Law on Federal Railways fixes the statutory framework and defines the interrelationships that allow privately owned train operating companies to use the infrastructure. The infrastructure will be managed by a new joint-stock “RZD Co”, which will own locomotives and about half of the wagons. However, all the shares in new joint-stock “RZD Co” will be held by the Federal Government, which means that the national rail network will remain under public ownership and control.


Specialized freight operating, long-distance and commuter passenger service companies are now being set up, as well as rolling stock repair and maintenance companies. They will be pushed towards commercial operation.

Despite the desire to introduce competition, the Russian government has no intention of allowing fragmentation to undermine the integrity of the national network.

In parallel with the reform programme, a new operational model has been developed . Local

operations, ensuring that trains depart on time, freight trains are correctly formed, and locomotive and crew changes go according to plan, are handled at divisional control centers.

Data processing systems served by satellite and optic fiber links are getting closer to tracking locomotives and wagons in real time.

Both the management of RZD and the government are confident that carrying out the reforms will improve both the quantity and quality of rail transport, and at the same time cut operating expenses.


Choose a topic to make a report (about 150-200 words).

Use additional information.

1.Transport system of Russia.

2.’The Great Siberian Track’.

3. Russian railways.

4. RZD Co.


Read some extracts about Russian Economy today*.

Translate the texts in a written form.

Make a list of difficult words. Translate them and learn by heart.

Date: 2015-12-11; view: 866

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