The problems of implementing the bank's depositary policy, and the ways of their solutions
Due to the shortage of investment funds, to attract people of money is the most important task during the transition period. It is therefore necessary to create as the most favorable conditions for potential investors to deposit money into savings deposits. In this regard, the creation of favorable conditions for the involvement of citizens in the economy through the bank's deposit policy is a major task in this regard at the present stage of development. It is generally believed that investing money in the bank has a small amount of risk for investors, as banks in terms of volume of funds raised, the nature of their operations are usually among the most stable financial and credit institutions in the economy. At the same time as the world and national history knows many cases of bankruptcy, which are widespread and have serious consequences. At different periods of time with the problems of protecting bank depositors faced almost all developed countries. The solution to this problem and in our country is very difficult. The domestic banking system is in flux, characterized by instability, lack of professionalism and other disabilities. Many countries have accumulated considerable experience in protecting depositors and preventing bank crises. It must be borne in mind in order to avoid the mistakes of others in Kazakhstan, using other people's mistakes and achievements. Deposit insurance plays an important role for the development of the commercial bank deposit policy. It can operate successfully only in a high level of state regulation of civil society and its economic and financial institutions. Consequently, it is necessary to operate an effective system of supervision and control over commercial banks. In Kazakhstan, as in many countries, this is one of the most important functions of the National Bank. The National Bank has played an important role in maintaining the liquidity of banks and prevents them from bankruptcy with financial difficulties. As can be seen from the above, the need to create an effective system of deposit insurance is a priority at this stage. On February 16, 2000 in Kazakhstan began to operate a system of insurance (guarantee of retail deposits, which originally extended to the fixed deposits of the population, and from April 13, 2002 and the current population's deposits in tenge and businesses. Introduction of this system, members of which were originally 16 the largest banks in Kazakhstan, contributed to the restoration of previously lost confidence in the banking system and led to a marked increase in bank deposits.
The growth of public confidence in the banking system also contributed to the adoption in late March 2000 the Bank Secrecy Act. On July 1, 2002 there is a new mesh for a guaranteed refund deposit of individuals. On time deposits in tenge reimbursement shall not exceed 400 thousand tenge, for deposits in U.S. dollars and Euro - 90% of the amount to contribute, but not more than 360 thousand tenge, and on demand deposits in tenge reimbursement - no more than 50 th. The development of a modern banking system of Kazakhstan is aimed at international experience. Thus, following the example of developed countries, Kazakhstan has also begun to address the protection of the rights of citizens as subjects of the most vulnerable financial relations Processes occurring in our country in 1990-1995. (Inflationary devaluation of bank deposits due to the increase in prices of a few thousand times, mass losses from the savings of the various business structures, which attracted contributions by artificially high interest rates) had a special significance. A similar experience for a short period of time has no country in the world, except, possibly, other CIS republics. This makes the recovery of the normal psychology of the population in respect of costs and savings of a particularly difficult task that depends on the safety of new saving.
The safety of bank deposits (deposits) is crucial to a market economy and should take precedence over many other economic policy objectives. Guarantee (Insurance) of bank deposits - a key tool to ensure their safety. In any case, it must be combined with strict control and supervision of the National Bank of Republic of Kazakhstan over commercial banks. Since the system of deposit insurance has recently been introduced, respectively, and then there exist a number of deficiencies that were identified by the author (Table 3.1).