The strategy of forming the bank's depositary policy
Commercial banks, as already noted, begin active efforts to attract deposits for mutual benefit. The success and effectiveness of their activities depend primarily on the general economic situation, the legislative framework, a stable political system and a number of other circumstances. From the banks themselves also depends on how radical generation development in the pressure of competition. The planning system in the banks is to develop strategies, policies and tactics of the market economy. The strategy is determined on the basis of forecasts and long-term development plans (for banks from 18 months to 3 to 5 years), the policy - medium-term plans, and tactics - short-term, responsive, flexible plans (programs) for a period of several months to one year. One important aspect of the bank is to implement the optimal deposit policy, which for some reason is of paramount importance for effective banking activities to raise funds on deposit and efficient management. The main document governing the process in a commercial bank involvement of temporarily free funds of enterprises, organizations and people in the bank account in the various deposits (deposits), is a "policy of the bank deposit." This document is developed independently by each bank based on a strategic plan for the bank, analysis of the structure, condition and dynamics of the resource base of the bank and from the perspective of its development, as well as closely related to such documents, defining the main directions and conditions for placement of borrowed funds, as the "Credit policy "and" Investment Policy ". The document "Deposit Policy" shall be determined by its strategy to attract funds to implement the statutory requirements, goals and objectives identified memoranda credit and investment policy, with reference to the maintenance of bank liquidity and to ensure its profitable operation. Specifically, it provides the bank: the growth prospects of the bank's own funds (capital), and hence the ratio between own and borrowed funds, attracted by the structure and borrowed funds (deposits, deposits, interbank loans, etc.) preferred types of deposits; the relationship between time deposits (deposits) and the term "on demand", the main contingent on deposits, ie the category of investors; geography attract and borrowing, the conditions to attract deposits; ways to attract (based on contracts of bank accounts, the correspondent account , bank deposit (deposit), by issuing its own certificates, new forms of raising funds on deposit, the special conditions of opening certain types of deposits, measures to comply with standards of bank risk on funds raised from /13/. Development and implementation of the bank's deposit policy engaged in a close relationship with each other a number of structural units of the bank, including controls. To carry out practical activities to raise funds banks are developing provisions for deposit operations (separately for retail deposits and corporate deposits), which specify: terms and conditions of deposit, the legal status of the subjects of contractual relations, the order of the contract of bank deposit, its content , how to input and output of the contribution, a list of documentation required to open and use the input, and requirements to them, the rights of depositors and the bank's responsibility, methods of calculation and payment of interest on deposits. In intra instructions on how to commit the specific deposit operations required the organization of branch (division) of the bank with various categories of investors, the order of execution of documents corresponding to the commission of these operations, the scheme of their documents, reflected in the accounting operations for receiving and issuing deposits, calculation and payment of interest on them. Deposit policy is a system of measures aimed at mobilizing free funds of legal entities and individuals in the form of deposits with a view of active use on a reciprocal basis.Cash sent one person to another under the terms of the repayment amount in nominal terms, with the addition of a predetermined allowance, stand-effective tool not only for investors, as they are being paid, but also for the financial intermediaries. Many deposits are able to create loan capital, which is then placed on the favorable conditions in all sectors of the economy. The system of relations by which the policy of the bank deposit is formed, is a complex of measures to attract investors and improve the quality of customer service - on the basis of liquidity, safety and profitability of investments. The most important task deposit policy is to create the necessary conditions to increase the bank's deposit base.
Firstly, the bank developed the strategy and tactics to attract deposits contributes to an increase in the number of potential investors. Attractive deposit policy, the creation of favorable conditions for investors to invest, improves the competitiveness of the bank to others.
Secondly, by increasing the number of clients, an increasing number of investors borrowed funds, which allows the bank to increase lending policies. That is, due to the effective exchange rate of the deposit policy, the bank has an opportunity not to resort to a variety of expensive borrowing on the interbank money market, or find other sources of raising funds. In this regard, commercial banks have to constantly take care of, as the quantitative and the qualitative improvement of their deposit funds. They use different methods for this: interest rates, services and benefits to investors.
The banks observe a few basic principles of organization of deposit operations:
1. Deposit operations should contribute to profit or to create conditions for a profit in the future.
2. Deposit operations must be conducted and a variety of different subjects.
3. Particular attention is in the process of deposit operations should be given to fixed-term deposits.
4. Should be provided with the relationship and consistency between deposit and lending operations of the operations on the timing and amounts.
5. By organizing the deposit and credit transactions, the bank should seek to minimize the free resources.
6. The Bank should take steps to develop banking services, which help to attract deposits.
Organization of the deposit policy is based on the principle of the formation of an effective deposit portfolio. In a market place and role in the overall deposit portfolio of the bank's development strategy is greatly increased, which is due to an increase in the quantity and quality of services, growth of various types of deposits, and, therefore, extending the frontiers of the social activities of the state.
The deposit portfolio - a collection of all types of deposits invested in the bank depositors. Deposit portfolio, as a tool to implement the policy of deposit, reflects the sources and uses of funds. You can judge it on the passive side of the balance of the bank. A balance sheet of the bank acts as an effective instrument of financial control of the bank. Through the balance sheet can be monitored over all banking operations in order to control the financial status. That is, the shift of funds from liabilities into assets is carried out by transformation of the deposit portfolio in the bank's loan portfolio. Banks, in the course of its activities are faced with a huge number of risks. The most common type of risk - the risk associated with the operations of the bank deposit.Therefore, the goal is to effectively manage the bank's deposit portfolio. Specificity of deposit operations management in banks is determined by solving a series of tasks, which include:
1. Creating the conditions for successful deposit transactions in interbank competition.
2. Compliance with the interests of depositors (depositors), by providing guarantees, reliability, quality of service in order to achieve maximum stability of business connections.
3. Guarantee of bank profits plans.
4. Risk Management.
5. Human Resource Management.
Successful activities of banks depend primarily on addressing these fundamental problems. Thus, the analysis of commercial banks to attract deposits will become more familiar with the problems that exist at this stage, and further develop a strategic program development. In order to identify the problems of development of the deposit of the case the author has been carried out SWOT analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats faced by Kazakh banks in carrying out deposit operations. In commercial banks, there are internal and external environment in which there are certain changes. The internal environment (or micro-level) includes financial management, personnel management, bank marketing. The external environment (or macro-level) consists of the direct environmental impacts and indirect environmental impacts. The external environment includes the direct impact of investors: individuals and legal entities, competitors. The external environment of indirect effects includes the following factors: economic, demographic, social, geographical. On the basis of the study revealed the following results (Table 1.3).