Law is a system of rules established by the state. The main aim of law is to consolidate and safeguard the social and state system and its economic foundation.
The system of law in our country consists of different categories of law, such as constitutional law, criminal law, international law, civil law etc.
In contrast to the Anglo- American tradition of common law the Russian legal system emphasizes statutory laws - primarily codes and statutes - that are legislative enactment's.
The Constitution is the primary source of law in Russia. It has supreme legal force and effect, and is applicable throughout the entire territory of the RF. No laws adopted in the RF may contravene the RF Constitution.
Two types of legislation are enacted by the FA : federal laws and federal Constitutional laws. :
The RFC envisaged the drafting of centralized uniform code of law for all the Constituent entities. A number of enacted codes of law comprises c large group of legal issues: civil law and procedure, criminal law and procedure, family law, employment law etc. In addition to these codes legislative bodies enacted more specific laws, decrees and edicts.
Court System in Russia:
The court is a state body that administers justice on behalf of the State. In Russia there are about 14000 judges in 2500 courts of general jurisdiction on various levels.
There are courts of first instance /original jurisdiction/ and second jurisdiction /appellate jurisdiction/.
A court in which a case is first heard is called the court of first instance; it is the one which first examines a case in substance and brings in c sentence or decision.
A court of. second instance is one which examines appeals and protests against sentences and decisions of courts of first instance.
The Constitutional .court ensures that the laws and other normative acts passed or being considered by the supreme and local legislative branches are constitutional.
The Supreme court is the highest judicial bocy for civil, criminal, business and other cases. It has the power of supervision over activities of all the judicial bodies of the state. It gives the court interpretation on the issues of court practice. It tries the most'important criminal and civil cases and likewise hears appeals against the judgments and sentences of other courts, as well as appeals against judgements and sentences of the! military courts of the state.
The basic judicial body is the district court. DC try both criminal and civil cases. It also protect the electoral rights of citizens.
The Higher Arbitrage is the highest judicial body for settling economic disputes and other cases examined by courts of arbitrage; it exercises judicial supervision over their activities in the procedural forms envisaged by federal law and provides interpretation on issues of court proceedings.
There are opened and closed sessions. Trial without participation of both sides is not allowed. The judges are independent and they must obey jthe law.
Judicial System of the RF
Judicial power is free from political and ideological ideas, independent in its activities from the executive and legislative branches of power.
The Judicial System of the RF consists of:
• The Constitutional court of the RF and constitutional courts of the.
republics and othersubjects of the RF.
• 4- tiered system of courts of general jurisdiction. 3- tiered system of the military courts is an integral part of it. The Supreme court of the RF is the supreme judicial body of this branch.
• 3- level system of arbitrage courts with the Higher Arbitrage of the RF as a supreme judicial body competent to settle economic disputes and other cases considered by arbitrage courts exercise judicial supervision! over their activities according to the federal law - envisaged procedural forms. The system of the courts comprises: arbitrage courts of the subjects of the RF; courts of arbitrage districts - 10 and the Higher Arbitrage.
• JUSTICES OF THE PEACE are judges of the subjects of the RF and form an integral part of the system of court of general jurisdiction.