ANTONYMS Antonyms are words which have opposite meanings. The words hot and cold are antonyms. So are up and down, and short and tall. A word can have more than one antonym, depending on which meaning you use for the word. For example: - short could have the antonym tall if you are referring to a person's height. - short could have the antonym long if you are referring to to the length of something. In many languages, including English, you can sometimes make antonyms by adding a prefix: - real and unreal are antonyms - flexible and inflexible are antonyms However, English is well known for its exceptions to the rules, so you have to watch out for words like flammable and inflammable, where this doesn't work ... they're synonyms! There are actually four types of antonyms:
· Gradable antonyms These describe something which can be measured and compared with something else. For example, if one car is travelling at 120 km/75 mi per hour and one at 60 km/37 mi per hour, one is fast and the other is slow. Other examples are small and big; hot and cold; dry and wet; clean and dirty.
· Complementary antonyms are absolute opposites, like mortal and immortal.
· Relational antonyms are opposites where one word describes a relationship between two objects, and the other word describes the same relationship when the two objects are reversed. For example, parent and child, teacher and student, or buy and sell.
· Auto-antonyms are the same two words that mean the opposite. For example, fast (moving quickly) and fast (stuck in place).
Hyponymy and Meronymy.
Hyponymy is a relation between two words in which the meaning of one of the words includes the meaning of the other word. The lexical relation corresponding to the inclusion of one class in another is hyponymy.
A hyponym is a subordinate, specific term whose referent is included in the referent of super ordinate term.
E.g. Blue, Green are kinds of color. They are specific colors and color is a general term for them.
Therefore, color is called the super ordinate term, and blue, red, green, yellow, etc are called hyponyms.
A super ordinate can have many hyponyms. Hyponymy is the relationship between each lower term and the higher term (super ordinate). It is a sense relation. It is defined in terms of the inclusion of the sense of one item in the sense of another. E.g. The sense of animal is included in the sense of lion.
Hyponymy is not restricted to objects, abstract concepts, or nouns. It can be identified in many other areas of the lexicon.
E.g. the verb cook has many hyponyms. Word: Cook Hyponyms: Roast, boil, fry, grill, bake, etc.
Word: color Hyponyms: blue, red, yellow, green, black and purple.
In a lexical field, hyponymy may exist at more than one level. A word may have both a hyponym and a super ordinate term.
For example, Word: Living Hyponym: bird, insects, animals
Now let’s take the word bird from above hyponyms. Word: Bird Hyponyms: sparrow, hawk, crow, fowl
We thus have sparrow, hawk, crow, fowl as hyponyms of bird and bird in turn is a hyponym of living beings. So there is a hierarchy of terms related to each other through hyponymic relations.
Hyponymy involves the logical relationship of entailment. E.g. ‘There is a horse’ entails that ‘There is an animal.’
Hyponymy often functions in discourse as a means of lexical cohesion by establishing referential equivalence to avoid repetition.
Meronymy (from the Greek words meros = part and onoma = name) is a semantic relation used in linguistics. A meronym denotes a constituent part of, or a member of something. That is,
X is a meronym of Y if Xs are parts of Y(s), or
X is a meronym of Y if Xs are members of Y(s).
For example, 'finger' is a meronym of 'hand' because a finger is part of a hand. Similarly 'wheel' is a meronym of 'automobile'.
Meronymy is the opposite of holonymy. A closely related concept is that of mereology, which specifically deals with part/whole relations and is used in logic. It is formally expressed in terms of first-order logic.