WARM-UP: Name all parts of the digestive system and explain their functions.
VOCABULARY: Learn the following words and word combinations.
Insoluble digestion to digest esophagus stomach cardiac region small intestine large intestine fundus pyloric region to break up gastric juice solid rectum to expel carbohydrates fats proteins liver sodium chloride potassium iron magnesium
Guess the meaning of the following words.
Chemical nutrients; molecule; lymphatic system; bloodstream; to absorb; to swallow; muscular tube; rib; enzyme; inorganic and organic food; substance; nutrition; muscles; source of energy; growth; minerals; vitamins; bones; teeth; skin.
Practice the following for pronunciation.
insoluble [ɪnˈsɒl.jʊ.bl ̩]
digestion [da ɪˈdʒes.tʃən]
digest [da ɪˈdʒest]
pyloric region [paı’lɒrıkˈriː.dʒn]
gastric juice [ˈgæs.trɪkdʒuːs]
hydrochloric acid [ˌhaɪd.rə.klɒr.ɪkˈæs.ɪd]
carbohydrate [ˌkɑː.bəʊ ˈhaɪ.dreɪt]
READING: Read the text and do the tasks that follow.
Every cell of the human body requires certain chemical nutrients. To supply them the body must break down complex foods into molecules to pass through tissues and be delivered by blood or lymphatic systems to the various body cells. This break of insoluble forms is known as digestion.
Digestion begins when we put food in our mouth and ends when the food has been absorbed into the bloodstream. When we chew, our teeth break up the food into small pieces for swallowing. Food then travels down a muscular tube called the esophagus, to the stomach. The stomach is a thick muscular sac positioned on the left side of the body just beneath the ribs. The upper region of the stomach, closest to the heart, is called the cardiac region. Below that is the cresent part of the sac called the fundus. The pyloric region is tubular and connects the stomach to the small intestine. The wall of the stomach is made up of three thick layers of muscle. The powerful contraction of these muscles break up the food, mix it with gastric juice, and move it down the tract. Gastric juice is a mixture of hydrochloric acid and enzymes that further digest the food. In the small intestine food is broken up into useful substances and waste substances by enzymes. Inside the small intestine villi absorb the useful substances into the bloodstream. Waste substances remain and pass into the large intestine, where water is absorbed until the waste becomes solid. This waste is later expelled from the rectum.
Foods are substances which when taken into the body yield energy on oxidation, build new tissue, repair old tissue and play an essential role in growth and nutrition. Foods are to be divided into two general classes. These are inorganic and organic foods. The former class includes inorganic salts and water. The latter class includes carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
Proteins are found most abundantly in muscles. Fat is concentrated in the fat cells under the skin and around the intestines. Carbohydrates are found mainly in the liver, muscles and blood. Carbohydrates are known as the chief source of energy. The absence of carbohydrates upsets the fat and protein metabolism. As for the minerals, high levels of calcium and phosphorus form part of the bones and teeth, sodium and chloride are found mainly in the body fluids, potassium is the main mineral in the muscles, iron is essential to red blood cells, and magnesium is found throughout the body.
Other types of food (vitamins) needed in very small amounts for various functions of the body are essential. They are found in certain foods and are necessary for the growth, development and general health of the body. Such foods include milk and many products made from it, all green leafy vegetables like cabbage, spinach, other fresh vegetables, fruits and fruit juices, whole-grained cereals, eggs and number of others. You determine how you feel throughout each day by the type of breakfast you eat. Your energy production, which corresponds to the quality of sugar available, determines how you think, act and feel.
Task 1.Answer the following questions.
1. What is digestion?
2. What happens when we chew?
3. Where does food get after swallowing?
4. How is the upper region of the stomach called?
5. Where is the fundus?
6. What absorbs useful substances?
7. What are the main kinds of food?
8. Why are carbohydrates necessary?
9. Where is fat concentrated?
10. Why are minerals necessary?
Task 2.Say if the following statements are correct. If not, give the right variant.
1. Food is broken down by acid.
2. The stomach is a thin muscular sac positioned on the right side of the body.
3. The pyloric region connects the stomach to the large intestine.
4. Gastric juice is a mixture of hydrochloric acid and proteins.
5. In the small intestine food is broken up into waste substances.
6. Waste substances pass into the large intestine and are later expelled from the rectum.
7. Foods can be divided into inorganic and organic types.
8. Proteins are found mainly in the liver, muscles and blood.
9. Minerals needed in very small amounts for various functions of the body are essential.
10. Vitamins are necessary for the growth, development and general health of the body.
Task 3.Match the first half of a sentence in column A with the appropriate second half in column B.
1. Every cell of the human body
a) a thick muscular sac positioned on the left side of the body just beneath the ribs.
2. When we chew,
b) carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
3. The stomach is
c) requires certain chemical nutrients.
4. The wall of the stomach
d) form part of the bones and teeth.
5. Inside the small intestine
e) known as the chief source of energy.
6. Organic foods include
f) is made up of three thick layers of muscle.
7. Fat is concentrated in the fat cells
g) throughout each day by the type of breakfast you eat.
8. Carbohydrates are
h) our teeth break up the food into small pieces for swallowing.
9. High levels of calcium and phosphorus
i) under the skin and around the intestines.
10. You determine how you feel
j) villi absorb the useful substances into the bloodstream.
Task 4.Use the words in the box to fill in the blanks.
All animals need to eat 1)_________ to get 2)_________ to live. But in order to use this food, they have to break it down in a process called 3)______. And so, all animals have a group of connected organs called the digestive 4)________.
In humans, the process of digestion begins in the 5)________ where food is 6)_______ into small pieces by the teeth. The 7)_______ helps by moving these pieces around. These pieces are covered by 8)________, or spit. The saliva makes the food slippery so that it is easier to 9)_______. It also helps to break down the food.
Once the food is swallowed, it passes through the 10)________ which is like a gate that sends food into the 11)_____ and air into the lungs. The food travels down the esophagus and into the 12)_____. Once in the stomach the food is mixed with 13)_______ and crushed some more.
After spending some time in the stomach, the food is sent into the 14)__________ where nutrients are 15)________. The 16)________ helps by producing some digestive juices called bile. Next, the remaining food goes into the 17)_________ where the 18)_______ are absorbed. The remaining food is called 19)____ and it is pushed into the 20)______ where it waits before leaving the body.
TRANSLATION: Translate the sentences into English.