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Learning from the ninth to the fourteenth centuries.

1. Islam has given us the knowledge of Greek science, preserved

and developed by the Muslims.

2. Much of Islam's scientific development was done at Baghdad,

the capital of the Islamic Empire.

3. Caliph Ma'mum, ruler from 813 to 833, created the "House of


4. The House of Wisdom, including a library, a translation

bureau, and a school, was a sophisticated center of learning.

5. At the House of Wisdom, scholars studied Greek, Persian,

and Indian scientific works translated into Arabic.

6. Scientists studying ancient Greek manuscripts developed the

foundations for modern medicine.

7. Muslim scientists experimenting with a variety of laboratory

techniques developed the foundation for modern chemistry.

8. In mathematics, Muslims gave us three extremely important

ideas: the use of numerals, the decimal system, and the concept

of zero.


Exercise 58:

Answer the following questions in your own words.

Use noun clauses after learn, realize, know, regret,andbelieve.


1. What have you learned about people in general during this


2. What are the three most important things about other cultures

that you have learned during this class?

3. What have you realized about your own culture?

4. What are five new things that you now know about English?

5. Is there anything that you regret about your work in English?

6. What do you believe is the most valuable thing about your

experience here?


Exercise 59: Review of Clauses, Phrases, and Transitions

Individually, in pairs, or in small groups, combine the following

sentences. Use appropriate subordinating or coordinating conjunctions,

transitions, or phrases. Many variations are possible;

above all, try to vary your sentence structures and to eliminate

unnecessary words.

How Can People Learn Best?

1. The greatest puzzle of education is a question.

How can a child learn best?

2. People everywhere agree on an idea.

Education is important.

Few people agree on something.

How should we provide education?

3. Does a child learn well in these ways?

Information is taught by practice.

Information is taught by repetition.

Information is taught by memorization.

4. Does a child learn better in other ways?

The teacher stimulates the child's curiosity.

The teacher makes learning fun.

The teacher makes learning pleasant.

5. Are there certain subjects?

These subjects must be memorized.

These include the alphabet and numbers.

These include the rules of spelling.

These include the multiplication tables.

6. Memorization is a part of education.

Repetitive drill is a part of education.

7. Does this mean something?

Can most learning be taught in that way?

Should most learning be taught in that way?

8. Should learning be fun for the student?

Is schooling very hard work?

The student must be forced to do it.

On Your Own In pairs or in small groups, discuss the questions

raised in Exercise B. What are your opinions on the best ways to

study and to learn? After you have finished your discussion, choose

one member to give a brief summary for the entire class. Be sure

to use reported speech in your summary

Exercise 60: Review of Clauses, Phrases, and Transitions

What is your reaction to the following quotation?

Think about your own educational experience and use your ideas to complete the

sentences to form a short paragraph. Then present it to the class.

"I am always ready to learn, but I am not always ready to be

taught."ŚWinston Churchill


a. I agree / disagree with Churchill's idea because....

b. I believe that....

c. I remember a time when....

d. While I was....

e. After I had....

f. As a result....

g. If I hadn't

h. Nevertheless....

On Your Own Organize a debate on the merits of education and

experience. Let half the class argue in favor of education and the

other half in favor of experience. If you want, have your debate

center on the process of language learning: Can you really learn

a language in a classroom? Without a class and a teacher, do people

have enough discipline to learn a language well?


Exercise 61:

The following quotes are students' responses to various questions.

Change each quote to reported speech.

Make all necessary changes in verb tenses.

Example: "I have really, really learned a lot here."ŚNoriko,

female, Japan

Date: 2015-12-11; view: 989

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