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Kit 2


1 Word Classes

2 Simple Sentences

3 Compound and Complex Sentences

4 Adjective Clauses

5 Noun Clauses

6 Adverbial Clauses




exercise 1.1

Analyze the following simple sentences into sentence parts in the usual way.

Indicate the word class of each underlined word: noun, n; adjective, adj; adverb, adv; verb, v; pronoun, prn; preposition, prep.


(1) The recent elections in Hong Kong have produced an encouraging result.

(2) The riots on housing estates in Tyneside last week had led to 261 arrests.

(3) All criminal charges against Oliver North were dropped on Monday.

(4) In the first two days of ground fighting, three brigades of the First Division destroyed Iraqi trenches with earth movers and ploughs.

(5) Construction unions in New York have long been criticized for their exclusion of racial minority groups.

(6) For over 50 years Barney has been helping people with their hair and scalp problems.

(7) Cleo the Camel now won’t eat anything except smoked salmon sandwiches.

(8) The panel will meet twice during the campaign.


exercise 1.2

Find prepositional phrases

(1) The apparent unease about the growing presence of Latinos also is reflected in a torrent of anti-immigration legislation introduced recently in Sacramento.

(2) Statistics Canada warned that the April decline may simply be a correction of inflated job gains in March.

(3) In his native Malaysia, he faces extortion charges alleging a series of encounters with lonely, wealthy women who said they were lured into hotel rooms, drugged, photographed nude, then blackmailed.

(4) The estimated cost of developing the advanced robotic arms has ballooned by nearly $138 million in the past three years.

(5) Striking Winnipeg emergency room doctors have reached a settlement with the province of Manitoba.

(6) The negotiations have made slow progress during the past two months with attempts by the Inkatha Freedom Party, homeland leaders, and the white right-wing parties to block significant movement.

(7) Each day, if the wind is not too strong, some of the Druze gather at the place called “echo valley” outside Majdal Shams to shout messages to their family and friends who stand several hundred meters away on the Syrian side of the ceasefire line.

(8) There are several reasons why the recruitment and organizing may not be as vigorous in the rest of the country.


exercise 1.3

Find noun phrases

(1) Belet Uen is a dusty crossroads in central Somalia.

(2) Mary entered a brush-hut encampment of 30,000 victims of drought, famine and war.

(3) The only significant growth sector for low-skill workers will be the service industry.

(4) A third of Quebeckers on welfare are under thirty.

(5) During his six-month tenure as Education Minister, he also segregated men and women in the ministry and boys and girls in high schools.

(6) The rift between the former allies was not resolved by President Yeltsin’s victory in the April referendum.

(7) An outbreak of meningitis at the University of Connecticut has been classified as an epidemic.

(8) The highly charged assassination case produced widely divergent interpretations of the evidence.



exercise 2.1

analyze the following simple sentences

(1) The project will feature low-floor streetcars.

(2) The judge found Mr Cornacchia a thoroughly dishonest witness.

(3) Mr Topham is in his office.

(4) The jury overturned the finding of a provisional court.

(5) The police have arrested a suspect.

(6) A psychiatrist gave the man an anti-depressant drug.

(7) Most of the inspectors are retired police officers.

(8) The prime minister sat down.

(9) The unarmed police officers seized ten tons of illegal drugs.

(10) He put his watch in the drawer.


exercise 2.2


(1) Early agrarian societies changed the landscape on a major scale.

(2) Almost all the world’s arable land had been cultivated by the beginning of this century.

(3) By 4100 B.C. humans had laid the foundation for one of the world’s earliest civilizations

(4) They had irrigated the Euphrates River plain.

(5) They abandoned these lands by 1700 B.C.

(6) Their farming methods destroyed the soil.

(7) Contemporary transportation systems in some countries rival agriculture as a consumer of land.

(8) Rapid population increases drive the search for more productivity.

(9) By burning coal humans have altered the global flow of energy.

(10) Some scientists predict a catastrophic warming of the earth.


exercise 2.3


(1) Epilepsy surgery is becoming more popular.

(2) Ashkelon was the main seaport of the Philistines.

(3) A channel in the shallow grape-treading basin directs the liquid into collecting areas.

(4) In the next several weeks, scientists are going to blast an 11-pound projectile from a 155-foot long cannon into a California hill.

(5) Light-gas guns resemble conventional guns in many ways.

(6) Cannibalism offers many advantages.

(7) Because of the curvature of the earth, the sun’s path is not at the same angle everywhere on Earth.

(8) Colour places great demands on a computer system.

(9) Changes of fashion rarely happen in a neat or orderly manner.

(10) Part of the new importance of pants is related to the uncertainty about skirt hems.


exercise 2.4

First find the two sentences among the eleven that follow that are not simple. Then analyze the remaining nine sentences in the usual way.

(1) Racism is a fact of life in Canada.

(2) Hundreds of former Newfoundlanders jammed Toronto’s Nathan Phillips Square yesterday to fight for fish.

(3) My friend Louise lives in an old downtown building.

(4) An employee can claim from the assets of a bankrupt firm.

(5) The program will produce about 23,000 more jobs through the creation of day care, space, public works and a non-profit home initiative.

(6) Mulroney is asking Bush to attend the Rio summit.

(7) The grand prize includes round-trip airfare and deluxe hotel accommodation.

(8) The outcome was predictable.

(9) He was knighted for his services to the royal family.

(10) The Hawaiian Islands have an air of unreachable beauty.

(11) We could hear his scream through the door.



exercise 3.1

Decide whether the following sentences are simple, compound or complex.

(1) The knife blades shine in the afternoon sunlight as the man in the flashy shirt pushes them deeper inside the metal hoops.

(2) He rushes forward and then he dives head first through the treacherous hole.


(4) An hour’s drive south of Budapest is Lake Balaton, which offers a sunny, uncrowded beach.

(5) The Shakers died out, but they left behind some great furniture and interesting houses.

(6) The island of New Guinea is one of the most intriguing destinations in the world.


(7) About half the photosynthesis that removes carbon dioxide from the air occurs in the tropics.

(8) The species is believed to be near extinction.

(9) Many marchers stayed at the barricades into the early morning hours today.

(10) Mr Nimro insists that he talked to Mr.Squevel in 1979.


exercise 3.2

Decide whether the following sentences are simple, compound or complex.

If the sentence is complex, mark — in the usual way— the main subject and the main verb.

(1) I am not surprised by the dramatic increase in complaints by the public against the
service provided by banks. ________________

(2) Anti-government guerillas in Uganda have abducted a British ecologist and several other people in an attack on a remote game lodge. ___________________________________

(3) American troops in Somalia went on high alert after a Marine was killed in an ambush of a night patrol near Mogadishu airport. _______________________________________

(4) Two Japanese video game giants, Nintendo and Sega Enterprises, said games sold in Japan from next month would start carrying labels warning of the risk of epileptic fits.

(5) The software the two companies sell in Europe and the US already carries such warnings.

(6) In the Gaza Strip, the Israeli army killed three Palestinians in a clash with stone throwers, according to the Israeli army. _____________________________________

(7) The power struggle in Zaire between President Mobutu Sese Seko and his arch enemy, Prime Minister Etienne Tshisekedi, moved further towards confrontation when the interim parliament said President Mobutu was guilty of high treason.

(8) French politician, René Pleven, whose career began in 1940 when he joined General de Gaulle’s Free French in London and who then went on to become prime minister of the Fourth Republic twice, has died, aged 92.

(9) More than 50 people drowned when the Polish rail ferry Jan Heweliusz capsized in churning seas and winds of up to 100 mph in the Baltic off the German coast.

(10) Mrs Bhutto was surprised by the appointment but called it a ‘positive step’.


exercise 3.3

Underline all the dependent clauses in the following sentences. Indicate the FUNCTION of the clause or clauses as follows: noun, ‘n’; adverbial, ‘adv’; adjective, ‘adj’.

(1) In Hong Kong’s fashionable district of Lan Kwai Fong, 20 people were killed when crowd celebrations went wrong.

(2) The 15,000 revellers were gripped by panic after a number of people fell to the ground.

(3) David Schoo and his wife Sharon, a well-to-do couple from Chicago,were charged with child cruelty after leaving their daughters, aged nine and four, alone at home while they spent Christmas on the beach at Acapulco, Mexico.

(4) Mr Lu stressed that there had been no improvement in relations with Britain.

(6) Brazil’s senate agreed last week by 76 votes to three to ban ex-president Fernando Collor de Mello from public office for eight years.

(7) Her father was a customs and excise officer who sent her to two Catholic schools although the family was Anglican.

(8) The crucial requirement was to register Volodya as the car’s new owner.



exercise 4.1

The bolded passages in the following sentences are adjective clauses. Underline the nouns that they modify.

(1) A statement issued after General Rose met US Admiral Jeremy Boroda,NATO’s southern Europe commander who would be in charge of any air raid,spoke of possible strikes on Serbian and Bosnian governemtn positions.

(2) By Monday they had pulled back less than ten percent of the 315 tanks, artillery pieces, mortars and multiple-rocket launchers that Serb officers say General Rose asked them to give up.

(3) The handful of heavy weapons that the Bosnian government has given up as its side of the bargainhave been grouped at a Sarajevo barracks watched by Ukrainian troops.

(4) More than 500 people have been killed and thousands made homeless across northern Ghana as ethnic fighting between the Konkombas and the Nanyumbas, which erupted on February 3,spread to seven districts.

(5) Late last year the Majlis gave the go-ahead for charges to be brought against Mr Hashemi, a move designed to take the broadcasting service out of the president’s hands.

(6) Non-governmental organisations, some of which work with Unita via Zaire,have taken over health care and distribution of UN emergency food in the 80 percent of the country where Unita prevents the government from working.

(7) The king warned that the Zulu nation would not be bound by South Africa’s new constitution, under which the first multi-racial elections will be held in April.

(8) The favourite to win the contract, the UK Lottery Foundation is headed by Virgin group chairman Richar Branson and former Tory cabinet minister Lord Young.

(9) More than half of the £4 billion worth of property stolen each yearis being sold to finance the habits of drug users.

(10) The estimate of the amount of drug-related property crime is derived from a formula devised by the Greater Mancester police and Home Office statistics.


(11) That same evening the Algerian press issued a denial which seemed to shoot down yet another rumour.

(12) A 45-year-old on social benefit who spends his time getting drunk and is of no use to his family or to societyshould be excluded from medical care which should instead be given to active 70 year olds.


exercise 4.2


(1) The customers asked me if we had the beer what they wanted.

(2) The experience what I want to write about is learning English.

(3) French is my first language in which I am very articulate.

(4) In future, I will be more confident to apply for a job who requires a good knowledge of English.

(5) We had a neighbour that her son played soccer professionally.

(6) I always enjoy living in a spacious environment of which Hong Kong does not offer.

(7) When I look back on my life and think about the most exciting things ever happened to me, I have a hard time choosing one of them.“

(8) The Tsar used to visit Poland what was a province of the empire.

(9) The company has enough surplus (8.4 million) to meet any deficiencies occur in 1991.


(10) One month later a man carried a long gun rushed into the company.

(11) In total there were five francophones versus twenty-five anglophones of which almost all of them were bilingual.

(12) To show their appreciation, the students prepared a homemade card to thank
everybody who participated in the staff training which was appreciated by everyone.

(13) One morning she had a customer in her store named Ann with her son Sam.



exercise 5.1

In each of the following items the double-underlined words make up either an adjective clause or a noun clause. Indicate the type of clause

(1) Police officials said the image appeared to show the suspect’s withdrawing money, using a bank card stolen from a rape victim.

(3) His lawyer says that more than two years later Mr Shairton is
still seeing a psychiatrist for depression and anxiety, which prevent him from
driving his taxi full-time.

(4) Mr Shairton, who has four children, two of them in college and three grandchildren, said the money would be helpful.

(5) Taiwan rejected China’s request that the hi-jacker be immediately returned and detained him on charges of air piracy.

(6) The hijacker, armed with fruit knives and toothpaste tubes under his shirt that he said were explosives was identified as a Zhang Hai, a 27-year-old driver for the city government of Tangshan, in northeast China.

(7) Bosnian Army troops and United Nations forces tried to restore order in Vares today as Muslim soldiers continued looting the town.

(8)Those who have lost everything tried to get back what they
have los

(9) Swedish peacekeepers trying to halt the looting were reinforced
by French troops sent from Sarajevo about thirty miles to the south.

(10) The new sanctions package, which the Security Council
is expected to vote on early next week
, will not take effect until a date to be set later
this month
and after the Russian parliamentary elections planned for December 12.

exercise 5.2

Each of the following sentences contains at least one error that is caused by a lack of understanding of noun clauses. Find the errors and rewrite the sentences correctly.

(1) Unfortunately he got fired because of the recession what was going on at the time.

(2) Part of my job is have to compose some simple memos and letters.

(3) When we are sick or suffering from some disease, the only thing we can think of is go to the hospital.

(4) She did not have any choice except keeping the problem to herself because if she'd told her husband what was happening at work he would have suspected her that she was the one who insisted on discussing sexual jokes.

(5) I couldn't believe it till I saw them how they had changed.

(6) Sexual harassment could also happen in a bar or on the street. It could happen
anywhere. It doesn't matter where. What it does matter is it shouldn't happen.

(7) I want everyone living on this planet feels happy.

(8) Scientists are working very hard to find out what are the causes of these illnesses.

(9) As a young person I was taught how impressive could be changes in our behaviour.

(10) The goal of this class is to improved grammatical accuracy in written and spoken English.

(11) I did not believe any of the stories until he asked me why that I did not have any pictures of myself when I was a baby.

(12) My Uncle Tom heard that there was a new cancer medicine manufactured in China but it was forbidden to import that medicine into Canada.

(13) If I closed my eyes the only thing I could see was someone was trying to scare me.

(14) I take ginseng often because it is considered very healthy and can give me extra energy. Another important reason for taking it is it can slow down the aging process.



exercise 6.1

In each of the following items the double-underlined words make up either an adjective clause, a noun clause or an adverbial clause. Indicate the type of clause.

(1) A scowling black-clad youth with a fearsome haircut and clothes made of safety pins is stamping around in a pair of big black boots.

(2) Nearby a neat Japanese couple are discussing styles, while two young Dutch women in shorts and backpacks and several teenagers of both sexes browse the shelves.

(3) For Shelly’s customers, tourist or native, the one brand that counts carries a black-and-yellow tag at the heel.

(4) Mr Griggs, who has invested £3 million in DM Clothing, denies that the venture smacks of opportunism.

(5) The town has no electricity at night because there is no money for fuel for the diesel generators.

](6) The shark is attracted to the canoe with a coconut shell rattle shaken under the water.

(7) A trap is used to catch the fish.

(8) When conditions are right, this is the most effective method of fishing I have ever seen.

(9) In other cities demolishing buildings is a minor form of spectator sport.

(10) Along the casino-laden stretch of highway known as The Strip, it is an exorcism.

(11) Before the Dunes Hotel was dynamited into rubble last week, there occurred a spectacular fireworks display.

(12) This fall, more than 10,500 hotel rooms are to be added to what has become the world’s densest concentration of tourist facilities.

(13) Her argument is that government should treat pornography as action to be regulated.

(14) Society is made of words whose meanings the powerful control.

(15) MacKinnon reasons serenely as fanatics do within a closed circle of logic.


exercise 6.2

Underline the adverbial clauses. indicate the category to which the clause belongs. time, place, concessive, result/purpose, condition, reason/cause, manner/comparison.

(1) When I was a child, I was terrified of the dark.

(2) As you get older, fear vanishes.

(3) Because life with my mother hadn’t turned out how he had hoped, my father was always hesitant and uneasy.

(4) While discretion about the hundreds of other candidates for the job has been scrupulously observed, Ms Eaton disclosed last week that they had included not only journalists and actors from both sides of the Atlantic but also a few ‘aristocrats’.


(5) Though the famine has abated, peace remains elusive, and the new U.N. force in Somalia, UNOSOM II, will face continued trouble when it takes command on May 1. (a) (b)

(6) If several hundred rebel insurgents suddenly decide to do battle in a wildlife preserve, is this considered guerrilla warfare or gorilla warfare?

(7) It took until January of this year before the province brought in a rule requiring five minutes’ rest for every hour spent on a computer keyboard.

(8) I’ve spoken to leading experts in the field whereas most patients get only a few minutes with their family doctor or a specialist.

(9) Office workers have been using keyboards since the first typewriters were introduced in the 1870’s.

(10) Until the government confronts these issues, the problem will remain.


exercise 6.3

indicate the category to which the adverbial clauses belong.

(1) After campaigning for four years against gridlock, pollution, driver’s aggression and accidents, the German press now wonders why people aren’t buying cars.

(2) The independent Unemployment Unit said the jobless total was 4,163,000 if calculated on the basis used before 1982.

(3) If adopted, the plan will permit a charming, civilized 21st century Seattle.

(4) After reading English at Oxford for two years without much enthusiasm Henry left the university without a degree, and went to work at a Birmingham factory.

(5) It is a standard conservative ploy to say that the states should do more because they are closer to the people, while at the same time failing to suggest where the states are to get the financial and intellectual wherewithal to carry out their greater responsibilities.

(6) Fred Gingell, the courtly interim Opposition Leader who has replaced Mr Wilson, denies that the Liberals performed poorly in the last legislative session, but he admitted they suffered from stage fright, as well as inexperience with the media, particularly when compared to the seasoned NDP members.

(7) While falling short of new Siberian giants, Ukrainian wells are big by standards of Alberta’s picked-over oilfields.

(8) After being bartered off to a new family, with little education, limited access to health care and no knowledge of birth control, young brides soon became young mothers.

(9) If unsigned by Ukraine and other independent republics (Belarus and Kazakhstan) that have nuclear weapons, this means the ambitions START-2 treaty won’t be worth the paper it’s written on.


exercise 6.4

each of the following items contains an error caused by a lack of understanding of theprecise meaning of a subordinating conjunction or by an ignorance of the possible forms of adverbial clauses. Correct the errors.

(1) I learned the English language in a hard way, by immersing myself completely in an English environment. I never really received or took any English courses after that I graduated from high school.

(2) She made a decision to take a risk even she knew there was no contact address for her to trace in the future.

(3) During the first few weeks, he felt that there was a war inside him every time when he took a tablet.

(4) Leora escapes and gets help from her friend, the Wizard, who tells her she must find a balloon and plant it under a tree in the courtyard, saying magic words.

(5) After saying the magic words, the tree begins to quiver and blossom with hundreds and hundreds of balloons that start floating in the air, filling the courtyard, the town and the whole country.

(6) We ask that this journey won't end before we will have dreamt.


exercise 6.5

Each of the following items contains an improperly formed comparative clause. Identify and correct the errors.

(1) While struggling to get ahead in life by studying twice as hard, Alex did not realize

what a lonely life he was leading. [first sentence in story]

(2) I heard my name mentioned on the radio; than I realized what kind of winner I was.

(3) Most of these feminists wish to be strong as men, especially emotionally.

(4) He was a very knowledgeable and smart person that I had never met at that time.

(5) His few closest friends had tried in vain to change that but Alex was unyielding.

(6) My brother is only a year and a half older than me.


Date: 2015-12-11; view: 950

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