We have seen, in previous lessons, how VOR/DME/ILS work. However, we have not yet discussed DirectionFinding(1)which is one of the oldest methods of navigation. Direction finding originally was developed in the 1920s to provide a "fix"(2)on an aircraft’s position. Generally speaking, this is an emergency type of navigational device(3)which enables a controller to help a "lost" pilot find an airport by giving him headings to follow. The technique is useful on occasions in search and rescue operations to plot the location of an aircraft at an unknown position.
Automaticdirectionfinding (ADF) is an airbornecounterpart(4, 5, 6)of the ground Direction Finding equipment. In an aircraft, the ADF permits a pilot to take continuous bearings automatically on any ground station operating on a frequency usable by the airborne equipment. The ground stations which are available to the pilot for this purpose include "compasslocators", Non-directionalRadioBeacon(7, 8)(NDB), and commercial radio-broadcasting stations. All of these may be used by the ADF-equipped aircraft for en-route navigation and for approaches to certain airports in remote areas. ADF is used mainly as a "backup" (9)navigational device, or in areas of the world where traffic is light and ground navigation aids are limited. It does not provide the position-fixing accuracy or display needed for modern air navigation in high-density(10)traffic patterns.
There are other navigational aids: Decca and LORAN(11, 12)are two of the most commonly known in aviation.
1. Direction Finding
─ A navigational aid.
─ Position of an aircraft as determined by various means of navigation.
─ An instrument or equipment designed for a particular purpose.
─ Automatic Direction Finding. Anavigational aid in the aircraft.
─ An aircraft in flight is airborne. In this particular case, however, it means equipment installed in the aircraft, known as airborne equipment.
7. Compass locators
─ Low powered radio beacons frequently installed at the same locations as outer and middle markers.
─ Non-directional radio beacon.
─ Support or help.
10. High density area
─ An area with a lot of traffic.
─ A navigational aid.
─ A navigational aid, known as Long Range Navigation.
1. Is DirectionFinding an old method of navigation? Was Direction Finding developed in the 1920s? The 1930 s? When was Direction Finding developed? Is Direction Finding still a navigational aid today? Is the technique of Direction Finding still used today? Is Direction Finding used for search and rescue operations? Is Direction Finding used to plot the location of an aircraft? Why is Direction Finding a useful method of navigation?
2. Does a navigator want a fixon his position? A pilot? A radio technician? Who wants a fix on his position? Does Direction Finding enable a pilot to get a fix on his position? VOR? DME? MTI? What enables a pilot to get a fix on his position? Is a pilot lost when he has a fix on his position? Does he call MAYDAY when he has a fix on his position? Does he need search and rescue operations when he has a fix on his position? When does he want a fix on his position? What enables a pilot to get a fix on his position?
3. Is a compass a useful device? A tachometer? A spanner? Was the wheel the first useful device ever invented? What do you consider was the first useful device ever invented? Name a useful navigational device.
4. Is ADF also a navigational aid? Is ADF in the aircraft? Can the pilot get his bearings with ADF? Can a pilot get his bearings automatically with ADF? Can a pilot get a fix on his position with ADF? Is ADF also used by controllers? Who uses ADF? Why does a pilot use ADF?
5. If ADF is in the aircraft, is it airborne? Is all equipment on the flight deck airborne equipment? Is a pilot always airborne? A stewardess? When is a pilot airborne? Why is equipment called airborne equipment? Why is ground equipment not called airborne equipment?
6. Is ADF similar equipment to Direction Finding equipment? Is ADF a useful counterpart to Direction Finding equipment? Is a windsock a useful counterpart to a wind direction indicator? Are some grammar books useful counterparts to other grammar books? Is this book a counterpart to other aviation language books? To a grammar book? What is a useful counterpart to this book? To ADF? To a windsock?
7. Is the compasslocator situated at the aerodrome? Does the compass locator help the pilot get a fix on his position? Is a compass locator one of many devices enabling a pilot to get a fix on his position? Where is a compass locator situated? Is the compass locator a radio beacon? Is the compass locator a high frequency radio beacon? What sort of radio beacon is a compass locator?
8. Is NDB a non-directional radio beacon? Is NDB a useful counterpart to other navigational aids? Is NDB situated at the aerodrome? Can a pilot take his bearings from NDB? Is NDB airborne equipment? Where is NDB? What does NDB stand for?
9. Do you help friends when they are in trouble? Do you backup friends when they are in trouble? When they need you? Is ADF used as backup equipment to other navigational equipment? Why is it necessary to have backup equipment in navigation?
10. Does Chicago International Aerodrome have the highest density traffic in the world? Does Charles de Gaulle International have highdensity traffic? Heathrow International? What aerodrome has the highest density traffic?
11. Is Decca a navigational aid? Is Decca one of many navigational aids? Is Decca used on the North Atlantic? Pacific? Everywhere in the world? Where is Decca used?
12. Is LORAN also a navigational aid? Is LORAN a navigational aid approved by ICAO? Do pilots also approve of LORAN as a navigational aid? What does LORAN stand for?
Instructions to students: Choose the appropriate meaning, or meanings, if more than one meaning applies. Mark the square accordingly.
a) Every aircraft has, on its flight deck
a) Navaid equipment can consist of
i. airborne equipment.
ii. a compass.
iii. a tachometer.
iii) commercial radio broadcasting stations
b) A pilot cannot navigate without
b) When approaching an aerodrome a pilot sees
i) an NDB beacon.
ii. finding his bearings.
ii) an aerodrome beacon.
iii. having a fix on his position
iii) a morse code signal.
iv) a compass locator.
c) Search and rescue operate
c) In an emergency it is useful for a pilot to have
i) when they receive a MAYDAY signal.
i) backup equipment.
ii) when they receive a distress signal.
ii) Direction Finding equipment.
iii) in an emergency.
iii) high density fog
iv) with Direction Finding equipment.
iv) a fix on his position.
d) With Direction Finding equipment a controller can
d) Some airborne equipment is
i) vector a pilot into position.
ii) help a pilot who is lost.
iii) give a pilot headings to follow.
iv) direct an aircraft through high density traffic.
iv) a transponder.
Instructions to students: Describe in your own words the functions of the following, distinguishing between a navaid and a landing aid: