The function of area control is to provide air traffic control service for controlled flights except for those parts of flight where the ATC service is provided by approach control or by aerodrome control. Its area of control usually includes many thousands of square miles of airspace. With radar, controllers can position aircraft and achieve the desired safe and expeditious flow of traffic. (However, area control can be provided without radar). Some centers have computers(1) which automate many of the routine functions(2, 3) of the controller.
In order to maintain a controller's workload(4) at a level within his capability, the centre's airspace is divided into sectors. (5)
It is essential that the controller know the position and future plan of every aircraft within his sector. To accomplish this, flight progress boards(6) are used on which are placed flight progress strips(7) which contain all the pertinent current flight data(8) such as the following:
Type of aircraft
Point of departure
Flight planned route
Filed true airspeed(10)
The controller's and pilot's estimated time over the current reporting point
Actual time over reporting point or fix
Flight level in hundreds of feet
Where a centre does not have the requisite computer, flight progress strips are manually(11) prepared and handled.
Approach control facilities use radar and flight progress strips in the same manner as area control centres.
A controller has to decide which separation standard he will apply to aircraft in flight. If he applies lateral separation(12) he must maintain aircraft on different routes or in different geographical areas.
In applying longitudinal separation(13) the controller maintains an interval between aircraft. Longitudinal separation is established by requiring aircraft to depart at a specified(14) time; to arrive over a reporting point at a specified time; or to hold over a reporting point until a specified time. A 15-minute, time-spacing interval between two 600 mph jet aircraft means that they are separated longitudinally by 150 miles.
Vertical separation(15) is obtained by assigning different flight levels to aircraft, in other words, they are separated by a specified vertical distance.
─ Electronic equipment for processing information mathematically and logically.
─ Procedure that does not change from day to day.
─ Work; employment.
─ Quantity of work.
─ A portion of airspace assigned to a controller.
6. Flight progress board
─ A board designed and used for the display of flight information.
7. Flight progress strips
─ Usually in the form of a piece of paper measuring about 2 x 15 centimeters containing flight progress information and kept on the flight progress board used in control units.
8. Current flight data
─ Up-to-date flight information.
9. Aircraft identification
─ A group of characters given to each aircraft to distinguish it from others.
10. Filed true airspeed
─ The airspeed entered on the flight plan.
─ Handled by hand.
12. Lateral separation
─ Separation by maintaining aircraft at different routes or in different geographical areas.
13. Longitudinal separation
─ Separation of aircraft by maintaining a time interval between them.
14. To specify
─ To say definitely.
15. Vertical separation
─ Separation of aircraft by assignment of different levels.
1. Do we use computers in aviation?
Do computers help process flights? Are flights processed faster because of computers? Do computers only process flights? What information can computers process? Why are computers necessary in aviation? Why do controllers like computers?
2. I get up every morning of the week, wash, have breakfast and come here. This is my routine every morning of the week. If I go for a walk in the country, is this my routine? What is my routine?
Is filing a flight plan the routine work of the pilot? Flight Progress Strips in an area control centre
Is checking the checklist the routine work of the pilot?
Why is checking the checklist, routine?
Why is filing a flight plan, routine?
What would happen if it were not routine?
3. The functions of a controller are mainly to separate flights. Are his functions very responsible? Are his functions very difficult? Busy? Routine? Why are some of his functions routine? Do some centres have computers for the routine functions of the controller? Do all centres have computers for the routine functions of the controller? What centres have computers for the routine functions of the controllers? Do computers automate these functions?
4. Is the workload of a controller at a busy aerodrome very heavy? Is the workload of a flight attendant sometimes very heavy? On an empty flight is a flight attendant's workload very heavy? On what sort of flight is a flight attendant's workload heavy? Do you have a heavy workload in this lesson? Will you have a heavy workload when you study air traffic control? When does a pilot have a heavy workload? An air traffic controller? You?
5. Is a control area divided into sectors? Is a control area divided into sectors when the workload is heavy? Is a control area always divided into sectors? When is a control area divided into sectors? Is a controller responsible for his own sector? Are there many flights in each sector? Does a controller separate the flights in his own sector? Why does a controller handle only one sector?
6. Does a controller have a flight progress board? Is the flight progress board in front of him? Is the flight progress board sometimes behind him? Where is the flight progress board?
7. Does a controller enter information on a flight progress strip? Does he enter the information on the flights in his sector? What information does he enter on his flight progress strips? Approximately what size is a flight progress strip?
8. On a flight progress strip a controller enters only current flight data. Does he enter only current data? Does he enter yesterday's data? What data does he enter on a flight progress strip? Who enters the data? Does he enter data on the flights in his sector? Tell me some of the data a controller enters on flight progress strips.
9. Is an aircraft identification a group of characters used to identify the aircraft? Is an aircraft identification a number? A group of numbers? A group of letters? Is an aircraft identification a name? A colour? Is an aircraft identification a number of a flight? What is an aircraft identification? What is BA 624? Oscar Foxtrot Charlie?
10. On the flight plan the pilot has entered the true airspeed of the flight. Does a pilot enter the true airspeed of the flight on the flight plan? Does a controller enter the true airspeed on the flight progress strips? Where does the pilot enter the true airspeed? Where does the controller enter the true airspeed? Is the true airspeed part of the data on the flight progress strip?
11. Does a pilot control his plane manually? Does he always fly from A to B manually? When does he control the plane manually? Does a driver always control a car manually? Does a controller always prepare his flight progress strips manually? When does a controller prepare flight progress strips manually?
12. In lateral separation is there a safe distance between flights? In lateral separation is there a safe distance on the right? On the left? Behind? Below? In lateral separation where is there a safe distance? Who
provides lateral separation? Under what weather conditions does a pilot provide lateral separation? A controller?
13. In longitudinal separation is there a safe distance in front? Behind? Below? Above? Where is there a safe distance in longitudinal separation?
14. We start our lessons each day at a specified time of 0900 hours. Do we finish our lessons at a specified time? What is the specified time for starting our lessons today? Tomorrow? What is the specified time for finishing our lessons today? Tomorrow? Do you go to the cinema at a specified time? Do you have your meals at a specified time? Do you always go to bed at a specified time? Does longitudinal separation require pilots to depart at a specified time? Report at a reporting point at a specified time?
15. Is vertical separation when aircraft fly at different flight levels? Is vertical separation important to all aviation? Do planes fly in both directions in vertical separation? Does vertical separation involve different flight levels? Who controls vertical separation of flights? Why?
Instructions to students: Choose the appropriate meaning or meanings. Mark the square or squares accordingly as there might be more than one that would apply.