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A) In simple sentences

(1) with verbs of motion and other groups of verbs, when the action is regarded as fixed (timetable, schedule, calendar, etc.)

My ship sails at 10. What time does the first class begin?

(2) In special questions, when the speaker is asking for information or guidance:

Where do we go now? How do I fill out this form?

B) In complex sentences

(1) in adverbial clauses of time

Well be married the moment we find a flat.

(2) of condition

She wont say a word unless shes spoken to

(3) of concession

Youll have to do it, whether you like it or not / no matter how tired you are.

(4) In other types of clauses joined with -ever compounds

Whoever comes here will be given a warm welcome.

(5) In object clauses, after see (that) / see to it that, mind that, take care, make sure, I bet (AmE); after I hope the use of the Pr. Indefinite is optional.

See to it that the room is tidy.

I bet you miss your train.

I hope you find / will find a way out.

(6)In clauses of purpose and precaution, esp. after in case:

In case you get your dress dirty, put an apron on.

In case I forget all about it, send me a reminder.

 

IV Past Actions

1) In narration of past events, so as to make them sound more vivid and closer to the reader/hearer (historical present). King Arthur mounts his horse and gallops into battle.

2) In speaking of an authors writings:

Shakespeare uses a large number of metaphors.

1) in newspaper headlines:

Boy Saves Train. Avalanche Kills Five.

4)In a number of set patterns:

I hear youre getting married.

 

NOTE the use of the Past Indefinite for politeness:

I wondered if you were free this evening. I thought you might like some flowers.

 

 

The Present Continuous Tense (Progressive)

1) It is used to denote:

I.

a) A temporary action in progress (going on at the moment of speaking or within a wider period)

Im standing near the window at the moment.

b) A temporary series of acts:

Im getting up early this week.

c) An action or state peculiar to sb at the moment of speaking, esp. with the verb to be:

Dont take any notice of him: hes just being funny.

II.

A habitual action viewed as a continual process (emotional or literary use).

Found only with the adverbs always, ever, continually, constantly, etc. NOT used with never.

a) in emotional use:

Shes always complaining about her neighbours.

b) in a literary style:

The Neva is ever carrying its waters into the stormy Baltic.

 

III.

A future action

A) in simple sentences:

2) when the action is regarded as planned

Im leaving next week.

3) when the speaker expresses a strong determination NOT to do sth (in negative sentences)

Who does she think she is? Im not talking to her again!

B) in complex sentences: in clauses of time and condition (rarely) referring to the future

While you are looking at these pictures Ill fix something to eat.



IV.

An action referring to the immediate past:

Hello, Jackie! Are you sleeping or eating or what?

 

NOTE:

1) In present-day English, some verbs traditionally regarded as stative, are found in Continuous tenses:

Are you hearing me better now? Im using another phone.

Im having to cook my own meals this week.

Are you still needing that magazine?

The use of such link verbs as to feel and to look in Cont.tenses is common but regarded as informal:

Youre looking swell, Dolly, I can tell, Dolly.

Im feeling fine, thanks.

The same is true of the expression I am looking forward /I look forward to hearing from you.

3) Some set expressions are used only in the Present Continuous:

The children are killing themselves with laughter theyve just played a trick.

 

NOTE the use of Continuous forms for politeness:

Will you be going away at the weekend? I was thinking would it be possible to borrow your car?

 


Date: 2015-12-11; view: 1115


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