Both participle I and participle II can be used singly, in à phrase, or in à predicative construction. The participle can form four predicative constructions:
à) the objective participial construction (ÎÐÑ);
b) the subjective participial construction (SPC);
ñ) the absolute participial construction (ÀÐÑ);
The Objective Participial Construction (OPC)
As with other non-finite constructions, the participle in à OPC is in predicate relation to à noun in the common case or an object pronoun which denotes à person or à thing performing the action denoted by the participle:
I heard them talking loudly.
The OPC with participle I is used after the following groups of verbs.
1. Verbs of perception: feel, hear, notice, observe, overhear, see, smell, spot, spy, watch.
2. Verbs of encounter: catch, discover, find.
3. Causative verbs: get, have.
The OPC with participle II is used after the following verbs.
1. Perceptual verbs: see, hear, feel.
2. Volitional verbs and expressions: would like, need, want.
3. Causative verbs: get, have.
4. The verb consider.
The objective participial construction always functions as complex object in à sentence.
The Subjective Participial Construction (SPC)
The participle is in predicative relation to the subject of the sentence expressed by à noun or à pronoun:
She was seen running away.
The nominal part of the construction performs the function of the subject, while the verbal part expressed by the participle performs the function of part of à compound verbal predicate.
This construction is mostly used with perceptual verbs (SPC with participle I) and verbs of encounter (SPC with participle II):
Íå was found talking to himself in à whisper.
The Absolute Participial Construction (APC)
1. In the APC, participle I or participle II is in à predicate relation to à noun in the common case or pronoun in the nominative case. The APC is used, along with adverbial clauses, to introduce à subject different from the subject of the finite verb:
The weather being cold, they decided ïî1 to go to the lake. (Cf.: As the weather was cold they decoded not to go to the lake.)
Participle I indefinite is used in this construction to refer something that is going on at the same time as the event described by the finite verb or to mention à fact that is relevant to the fact stated by the finite verb:
Her voice trembling, she asked him, "Where am I to go now?"
Participle 1 perfect or participle II are used to refer to something which happened before the event described by the finite verb:
The question having been asked, the minister had to answer it somehow.
The absolute participial construction can function as an adverbial modifier of time, cause, attendant circumstances and condition. Participle I perfect is used mostly in the first two functions which very often overlap:
The text having been analyzed, she proceeded to write the summary. (adverbial modifier of time)
The lights having gone out, they had to go to bed. (adverbial modifier of cause)
Time permitting, I will stay there longer. (adverbial modifier of condition)
The door locked, she put the key in her pocket. (adverbial modifier of reason)
2. When the A PC functions as an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances, the preposition with can be used with it, so that we have the prepositional absolute participial construction:
The old woman stood up, with tears running down her face.
I wonder if you could do that with your eyes closed.
Participle I indefinite and participle II are generally used after with.
Both the absolute construction and the prepositional absolute construction can be used without a participle:
She stood very erect, her body absolutely stiff with fury.