It shows the action as possible/impossible, obligatory, necessary, desirable, etc. and may consist of:
1) Modal verb + infinitive
· You can prove everything.
2) modal expression: to be + infinitive, to have + infinitive
· I have to work for my living.
3) a V with a modal meaning + infinitive/gerund (to hope, to expect, to intend, to try, to attempt, to long, to wish, to want, to desire, etc.)
· He tried to open the tin and badly cut his finger.
· We intend going to Switzerland.
4) modal expressions + infinitive (to be able, to be obliged, to be bound, to be willing, to be anxious, to be gong, to be capable, etc.)
· I’m going to leave Paris.
5) verbs and expressions used in sentences containing the Subj.Inf.Construction:
· About 4000 workers of the port are believed to be on strike
The Compound Verbal Aspect Predicate
It expresses the beginning, duration, or the cessation of an action and consists of such verbs as to start, to begin, to fall, to set about, to go on, to keep on, to proceed, to continue, to stop, to cease, to finish,etc. + infinitive/gerund. Here also belong would and used to + infinitive.
· His bones ceased to ache.
Mixed types of predicate
(containing 3 elements)
1) the compound modal nominal predicate
· Don’t think I mean to be unkind.
2) the compound aspect nominal predicate
· The grey house had ceased to be the house for the family.
3) the compound modal aspect predicate
· He ought to stop doing nothing and criticizing everybody.
Áèëåò ¹3 Secondary parts
The Object a) the Definition b) The Ways of Expressing the O. c) Kinds of the O.
The Attribute a) the Definition b) The Ways of Expressing the A.
Apposition a) the Definition b) Kinds of A.
The Adverbial Modifier a) the Definition b) The Ways of Expressing the AM. c) the Position of the AM d) Semantic Types of the AM
Independent Parts of the Sentence a) direct address b) disjuncts c) conjuncts d) interjections
The O. is a part of the complementation of a verb, a verbal or an adjective within verb, verbal (non-finite) or adjective phrases. It refers to a person or thing, or a state of affairs which is affected or produced by, or is related to the action or state expressed by the predicate of a sentence. There may be 2 objects in one simple sentence: Mary sent Jane a letter. The pronoun it can be used as a formal object (expressed by an infinitive or gerundial phrase) extraposed to the end of the sentence: I don’t like it to be treated like this. The O. may be represented by a single word, a phrase, a predicative construction or a subordinate clause.
Parts of speech: a noun, a pronoun, a numeral, a substantivized adjective or participle (the wounded), an infinitive, a gerund, a predicative construction (non-finite clauses) – They insisted on my answering him, a quotation – She exclaimed “My God”. In a complex sentence, a subordinate clause may serve as an O. to a verb in the main clause – I didn’t know where they lived.
Kinds of O:
The direct O. is used after transitive verbs and denotes a person or a thing wholly involved and/or directly affected by the action of a transitive verb: She saw me and smiled. The d.O. may complement monotransitive phrasal verb with the adverb preceding or following it: Ray gave up his work. Come on, I’ll show you around.
The indirect O. is the first complement of the distransitive verb. The second noun phrase complementing the verb functions as direct object: Give me a chance! Sometimes the i.O. is used alone to complement the verb: Shall I tell hem? The i.O. is related to a prepositional phrase introduced by to, for, of: He bought a dress for her.
The prepositional O. is a nominal phrase introduced by a preposition which serves as part of the complementation of the prepositional verb or an adjective with a “fixed” preposition: The value of liberty depends on other values. Ditransitive prepositional verbs are complemented by a direct object and by a prepositional phrase, which follows it: She blamed herself for saying it.
The A. is a secondary part of the sentence which constitutes part of a noun phrase, modifies its head and denotes a quality of a person or a thing. It may be represented by a single word, a phrase, or a subordinate clause; it may precede or follow the word it modifies.
Parts of speech: an adjective, a pronoun (my, these), a numeral, a noun, a participle – a sleeping baby, a gerund – sleeping tablets, an infinitive – a book for you to read, an adverb – the room above, prepositional phrases – jokes of your brother’s. Attributive clauses used as postmodifiers transform the whole sentence into a complex one: I’ll never forget the day when we first met.
A. is a special kind of attributive relation between noun phrases (appositives) which denote the same person or thing: a person or thing referred to by one appositive is characterized or explained by the other appositive which gives the person or thing another name: J.Smith, the Dean, wil…; the word “grammar”.
Kinds of A:
A non-detached, close or restrictive A. Here the appositive noun phrases constitute a single semantic unit and are not separated by punctuation: My friend Gregory. Most often a.word-groups comprise the name of a person functioning as a head-word and a noun denoting a title, rank, profession, kinship or a geographical name: Pr.Jones, Captain Brown, Aunt Polly, President Putin, the River Thames. In set combinations like William the Conqueror, Richard the Lion Heart the modifying appositive follows the word.
A detached (non-restrictive) or loose appositive is not so closely connected with the head-word and is separated by commas. It gives some additional information about the person or thing denoted by the head-word, carrying some explanation or identification: He was in grey, his favourite colour. A d.a. usually follows the head-word, although it does not always come immediately after it: She was taller than her brother, a slim, pretty girl.