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PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES

(to work, to write)

Present Perfect Continuous
have, has + been + working, writing
Affirmative Interrogative Negative Interrogative- Negative
I/we/you/they have been working, writing   He/she has been working, writing   HaveI/we/ you/they been working, writing?   Has he/she been working, writing? I/we/you/they have not been working, writing   He/she has not been working, writing? Have I/we/ you/ they not been working, writing? Hashe/she not been working, writing?
Past Perfect Continuous
had + been + working, writing
Affirmative Interrogative Negative Interrogative- Negative
I/he/she/we/ you/they had been working, writing   Had I/he/she/ we/you/they been working, writing?   I/he/she/we/ you/they had not been working, writing   Had I/he/she/ we/you/they not been working, writing?  
Future Perfect Continuous
shall/will + have been working, writing
Affirmative Interrogative Negative Interrogative- Negative
I/we shall have been working, writing   He/she/you/ they will have been working, writing Shall I/we have been working, writing?   Willhe/she/ you/they have been working, writing? I/we shall not have been working, writing   He/she/you/ they will not have been working, writing Shall I/we nothave been working, writing?   Will he/she/ you/they not have been working, writing?

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE VERB «TO BE»

 

Functions Examples
1. The Notional Verb He is at home now. The students are in the classroom.
2. An Auxiliary Verb He is writing a letter. I wasasked a difficult question.
3. A Link Verb Jhon isa student. He is intelligent. He is the best student in our group.
4. A Modal Verb   We are to meet at noon. They are to begin this work at once.

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE VERB «TO HAVE»

 

Functions Examples
1. The Notional Verb She has a large family. We have got a comfortable flat.
2. An Auxiliary Verb He has graduated from the University. I have been waiting for you for half an hour.
3. A Modal Verb I have to get up early on Mondays. They had to go there. He will have to do it.

 

 

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE VERB «TO DO»

 

Functions Examples
1. The Notional Verb The exercise was done well. You didn't do anything to help her.
2. An Auxiliary Verb a) The Present and Past Indefinite (interrogative and negative forms) b) The Imperative Mood (negative form) c) to express emphasis   He doesn'twork here. Did you see him yesterday? — Yes, I did. Don't be late for the lessons. But I do know him.

General Questions

Predicate or auxiliary verb Sub- ject Part of the Predicate Object Adverbial Modifiers Short Answers
          Affirmative Negative
Is Do Does Did Will Are Was Can he you she it he you Ann you   take live rain be living? studying?   swim?   books   French?     at home? here? in Kyiv? last night? there? in class? Yes, he is. Yes, I do. Yes,she does Yes, it did. Yes, he will. Yes, I am. Yes, she was. Yes, I can. No, he isn't. No, I don't. No, she doesn't. No, it didn't. No, he won't. No, I'm not. No, she wasn't. No, I can't.

 



Tag questionS

Jack cancome, can'the? Fred can't come, can he? A tag question is a question added at the end of a sentence. Speakers use tag questions chiefly to make sure their information is correct or to seek agreement.
Affirmative Sentence + Negative tag = Affirmative answer expected Mary is here, isn't she? Yes, she is. You like tea, don't you? Yes, I do. Theyhaveleft,haven't they? Yes, they have.
Negative Sentence + Affirmative tag = Negative answer expected Mary isn't here,is she? No, she isn't. You don'tlike tea, do you? No, I don't. They haven't left, have they? No, they haven't.
This/Thatis your book, isn't it? These/Those are yours, aren't they? The tag pronoun for this/that = it The tag pronoun for these/those= they
There is a meeting tonight, isn't there? In sentences with there + be, there is used in the tag.
Everything is okay, isn't it? Everyonetook the test, didn'tthey? Personal pronouns are used to refer to indefinite pronouns. They is usually used in a tag to refer to everyone,someone,everybody,somebody,no one, nobody.
Nothing is wrong, isit? Nobody calledon the phone, did they? You've never beenthere, have you? Sentences with negative words take affirmative tags.
I amsupposed to be here, am I not? I am supposed to be here, aren't I? am I not? is formal English. aren't I? is common in spoken English.
     

Question words

When

When did they arrive? Whenwill you come? Yesterday. Next Monday. When is used to ask questions about time.

 

Where

Where is she? Where can I find a pen? At home. In that drawer. Where is used to ask questions about place.

 

Why

Why did he leave early? Why aren't you coming with us? Because he's ill. I'm tired. Why is used to ask questions about reason.

 

 

How

How did you come to school? How does he drive? By bus.   Carefully. How generally asks about manner.
How muchmoney does it cost? How manypeople came? Ten dollars.   Fifteen. Howis used with muchandmany.
How old are you? How coldis it? How soon can you get there? How fast were you driving? How long has he been here? How often do you write home? How far is it to Paris from here? Eighteen. Ten below zero. In ten minutes.   50 miles an hour.   Two years.   Every week.   500 miles. Howis also used with adjectives and adverbs.     How long asks about length of time. How oftenasks about frequency. How farasks about distance.

 

More questions with How

Question Answer  
a) How do you spell «coming»? c-o-m-i-n-g. b) How do you say «yes» in Japanese? Hai. c) How do you say/pronounce this word? To answer a): Spell the word. To answer b): Say the word. To answer c): Pronounce the word.
d) How are getting along? Great. e) How are you doing? Fine. f) How's it going? Okay. So-so. In d), e), and f): How is your life? Is your life okay? Do you have any problems? NOTE: f) is often used in greetings: Hi, Bob. How's it going?
g) How do you feel? Terrific! How are you feeling? Wonderful! Great! Fine. Okay. So-so. A bit under the weather. Not so good. Terrible! Awful! The questions in g) ask about health or about general emotional state.
h) How do you do? How do you do? How do you do? is used by both speakers when they are introduced to each other in a somewhat formal situation.

Who

Whocan answer that question? Whocame to visit you? I can.   Jane and Tom. Who is used as the subject of a question. It refers to people.
Who is coming to dinner tonight? Who wantsto come with me?   Ann and Tom.   We do. Who is usually followed by a singular verb even if the speaker is asking about more than one person.

Whose

Whose bookdid you borrow? Whose keyis this? (Whose is this?) David's. It's mine. Whose ask questions about possession.

What

Whatmade you angry? What went wrong? His rudeness. Everything. What is used as the subject of a question. It refers to «things».
Whatdo you need? Whatdid Alice buy? Whatdid he talk about? About what did he talk? (formal) I need a pencil. A book. His vacation. What is also used as an object.
What kind ofsoup is that? What kind ofshoes did he buy? It's bean soup. Sandals. What kind ofasks about particular variety or type of something.
Whatdid you do last night? What is Mary doing? I studied. She is reading a book. What + a form of dois used to ask questions about activities.
What countries did you visit? What timedid she come? What colour is his hair? Italy and Spain.   Seven o'clock. Dark brown. What may accompany a noun.
Whatis Tom like?   What is the weather like? He's kind and friendly. Hot and humid. What + be likeasks for a general description of qualities.
What does Tom look like?   What does her house look like? He is tall and has dark hair. It's a large, red brick house. What + look like asks for a physical description.    

 

Which

I have two pens. Which pendo you want? Which onedo you want? Whichdo you want? Which book should I buy? The blue one.   That one.   Whichis used instead ofwhatwhen a question concerns choosing from a definite, known quantity or group.  
Which countriesdid he visit? What countriesdid he visit?Which classare you in? What classare you in? Paris and Canada. This class.   In some cases, there is little difference in meaning between which and what when they accompany a noun.

Date: 2015-12-11; view: 1004


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