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Gerunds and Infinitives with Verbs Part 4

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These verbs can be followed by either the gerund or the infinitive with a change in meaning.

Remember + gerund

This is when you remember something that has happened in the past. You have a memory of it, like being able to see a movie of it in your head.

  • I remember going to the beach when I was a child. (= I have a memory of going to the beach).
  • He remembers closing the door. (= He has a memory of closing the door).

Remember + to + infinitive

This is when you think of something that you need to do. (And usually, you then do the thing).

  • I remembered to buy milk. (= I was walking home and the idea that I needed milk came into my head, so I bought some).
  • She remembered to send a card to her grandmother.

Forget + gerund

This is the opposite of remember + gerund. It's when you forget about a memory, something that you've done in the past.

  • Have we really studied this topic before? I forget reading about it.
  • I told my brother that we'd spent Christmas at Granny's house in 1985, but he'd forgotten going there.

Forget + to + infinitive

This is the opposite of remember + to + infinitive. It's when you want to do something, but you forget about it.

  • I forgot to call my mother. (= I wanted to call my mother, but when it was a good time to call her, I forgot. I was thinking about something else, and the idea to call my mother didn't come into my head).
  • She keeps forgetting to bring his book back.

Try + gerund

This is when you do something as an experiment. The thing you do is not difficult, but you want to see if doing it will have the result that you want.

  • I wanted to stop smoking, so I tried using nicotine patches. (= Using nicotine patches was easy, but I wanted to know if it would help me stop smoking).
  • She tried giving up chocolate, but it didn't help her lose weight. (It was easy for her to give up chocolate. She gave it up to see if it would help her lose weight, but it didn't).

Try + to + infinitive

This is when the thing you do itself is difficult and you don't succeed in doing it.

  • I tried to lift the suitcase, but it was too heavy.
  • She tried to catch the bus, but she couldn't run fast enough.

Look at the difference:

 

  • I tried giving up chocolate (it was no problem to stop eating chocolate) but it didn't make me feel more healthy.
  • I tried to give up chocolate, but it was too hard. I always ate some when my friends offered it to me.
  • It was too hot in the room. I tried opening the window (it was easy to open the window). It didn't help though, because it was very hot outside too.

• I tried to open the window, but I couldn't because it was stuck.

Stop + gerund

When we stop doing something it means the verb in the gerund is the thing that we stop. It can mean 'stop forever' or 'stop at that moment'.

  • I stopped working when I was expecting a baby. (Working is the thing I stopped).
  • My grandmother stopped driving when she was 85. (Driving is the thing she stopped).
  • My boss came into the room, so I stopped browsing the internet.
  • There was a fire alarm, so I stopped eating and went outside.

Stop + to + infinitive



In this case, we stop something else in order to do the verb in the infinitive.

  • I stopped to eat lunch. (I stopped something else, maybe working or studying, because I wanted to eat lunch.
  • She was shopping and she stopped to get a cup of coffee. (She stopped shopping because she wanted to get a cup of coffee).

Look at the difference:

 

  • I stopped smoking. (I gave up cigarettes OR I threw away my cigarette at that moment).
  • I stopped to smoke. (I stopped doing something else because I wanted to have a cigarette).

Regret + gerund

This is when you are sorry about something you did in the past and you wish you hadn't done it.

  • I regret going to bed so late. I'm really tired today.
  • She regrets leaving school when she was sixteen. She wishes that she had studied more and then gone to university.

Regret + to + infinitive

We use this construction when we are giving someone bad news, in quite a formal way. The verb is almost always something like 'say' or 'tell' or 'inform'.

  • I regret to tell you that the train has been delayed.
  • The company regrets to inform employees that the London office will close next year.

 

Put the verb into the gerund or the infinitive with ‘to’:

1. I couldn’t sleep so I tried _____________ (drink) some hot milk.

2. She tried _____________ (reach) the book on the high shelf, but she was too

small.

3. They tried _____________ (get) to the party on time but the bus was delayed.

4. We tried _____________ (open) the window, but it was so hot outside it

didn’t help.

5. He tried _____________ (get) a job in a newspaper firm but they wouldn’t

hire him.

6. He tried _____________ (get) a job in a newspaper firm but he still wasn’t

satisfied.

7. You should stop _____________ (smoke), it’s not good for your health.

8. We stopped _____________ (study) because we were tired.

9. They will stop _____________ (have) lunch at twelve.

10. We stopped _____________ (have) a rest, because we were really sleepy.

11. Oh no! I forgot _____________ (buy) milk.

12. Please don’t forget _____________ (pick) up some juice on your way home.

13. I forget _____________ (lock) the door, but I’m sure I must have locked it.

14. Have we studied this before? I’ve forgotten _____________ (learn) it.

15. Please remember _____________ (bring) your homework.

16. I remember _____________ (go) to the beach as a child.

17. Finally I remembered _____________ (bring) your book! Here it is.

18. Do you remember _____________ (eat) steak in that little restaurant in Rome?

19. I regret _____________ (tell) you that the train has been delayed.

20. I regret _____________ (tell) Julie my secret; now she has told everyone.

 


Difference between Affect and Effect

 

There is often confusion over the words effect and affect. In order to understand which to use, you must know the difference between a noun and a verb.

Effect is a noun. Affect is a verb. If you're not confident with spotting nouns and verbs, there are workarounds to help.

Examples:

· What effect did foot-and-mouth disease have on your business?

(The word effect is a noun.)

Tip: Try substituting the noun effect with the noun consequence to confirm it's a noun.

Substitution Test: "What consequence did foot-and-mouth disease have on your business?"
(As this sounds okay, effect must be correct.)

· Did foot-and-mouth disease affect your business?

(The word affect is a verb.)

Tip: Try substituting the verb affect with the verb transform to confirm it's a verb.

Substitution Test: "Did foot-and-mouth disease transform your business?"
(As this sounds okay, affect must be correct.)

· Do not allow this incident to effect your decision.

Tip: Do the substitution test.

Substitution Test: "Do not allow this incident to consequence your decision."
(As this is nonsense, effect must be wrong.)

The Other Substitution Test: "Do not allow this incident to transform your decision."
(As this sounds okay, affect must be correct.)

· That spiral effect is effecting my eyes.

Note: Sometimes, the noun-substitution test won't work with consequence because effect is quite a versatile word. You might have to try other nouns, e.g., appearance. If you find yourself trying to use this word as a verb (e.g., appear, appears), then you should be using affect not effect.A LITTLE TRICK TO SPOT EFFECT

The word effect has several meanings. It can mean outcome, consequence, or appearance. Try using one of these instead ofeffect. If the sentence still makes sense, then effect is almost certainly correct.
(This trick works because effect is a noun, just like the words outcome, consequence, and appearance.)

A LITTLE TRICK TO SPOT AFFECT

Try using the verb to transform(in its various forms, e.g., transforming, transformed, transforms) instead of affect. If the sentence still makes sense, then affect is almost certainly correct. However, if you find yourself trying to usetransformation, then you should be using effect because both are nouns.
(This trick works because to transform is a verb, just like to affect. )

NO CONFUSION WITH AFFECTING AND AFFECTED

There should be no confusion with affecting or affected. These are always verbs.

 

Select the correct version:

Eating chocolate affects / effects my mood. It genuinely makes me happier. The affect / effect is quite noticeable. Gin, on the other hand, makes me sad. I first noticed these affects / effects during my teens.


Poor English affects / effects your grades. The affect / effect of using poor grammar should not be understated. Take it from me - it has been affecting /effecting my grades since I was 11 years old.


Does manufacturing mineral products affect / effect the environment? If so, what is the affect / effect of gold mining? I do not see how that is affecting /effecting the environment as much as the article claims.


Eating chocolate affects / effects my mood. It genuinely makes me happier. The affect / effect is quite noticeable. Gin, on the other hand, makes me sad. I first noticed these affects / effects during my teens.


CONDITIONAL SENTENCES TYPE 1, 2 and 3

Theory of the conditional sentence

FIRST CONDITIONAL: “UNREAL, BUT LIKELY”

This conditional deals with “unreal, but likely” situations in the present or future. We call it “unreal” because situation we are describing hasn’t happened yet, and “likely” because we can easily imagine it happening. We use the first conditional to describe these situations.

For example, a 3 year old child is reaching toward the fire. She hasn’t put her fingers into the fire yet, but we know that small children don’t understand fire, so we can easily imagine her touching it.

 

SECOND CONDITIONAL: “UNREAL AND UNLIKELY

This conditional deals with situations in the present and future that are both unreal and unlikely. The situation we are describing hasn’t happened yet, and we really can’t imagine it happening very easily, except in a freak accident or a moment of great stupidity.

THIRD CONDITIONAL: “UNREAL CONDITION”

This conditional deals with situations in the *past* that are unreal—they didn’t happen. We can still imagine what the consequences would have been.

 

* FORMULA CONDITIONAL SENTENCES TYPE 1, 2 and 3

MEANING OF THE “IF CLAUSE” VERB FORM IN THE “IFCLAUSE” VERB FORM IN THE “RESULT CLAUSE”     (a) If I have enough time, I write to my parents every week. (b) If I have enough time tomorrow, I will write to my parents
True in the present/future Simple present Simple present Simple future
Untrue in the present/future Simple past Would + simple form (c) If I had enough time now, I would write to my parents. (In truth, I do not have enough time, so I will not write to them)
Untrue in the past Past perfect Would have + past participle (d) If I had had enough time, I would have writtento my parents yesterday. (In truth, I did not have enough time, so I did not write to them.)

 


Date: 2015-12-11; view: 1603


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