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A. The Infinitive as Adverbial Modifier of Purpose

The infinitive with to is used to talk about peopleís purposes, the reasons
why they do things.

He started drinking to forget.

They stopped for a minute to rest.

The same idea can be expressed by using in order to or so as to, but
generally they are not needed.

I got up early in order to have time to pack.

We went around the town so as to miss the traffic jams.

Note that in negative sentences in order not to or so as not to are used;
the infinitive alone is not usually correct.

Iíll go there at once in order not to be late.

Iíll write it down so as not to forget.


B. The Infinitive as Adverbial Modifier of Result

The infinitive in the adverbial function of result is usually used after too,
enough and soÖas.


1. too +adjective/adverb + infinitive

a) too + adjective + infinitive

You are too young to understand.

The plate was too hot to touch. ( = too hot to be touched.)

Sometimes either an active or passive infinitive may be used. But this is
not always possible, so it is better to stick to the active infinitive.

b) too + adjective + a + noun + infinitive

He was too shrewd a businessman to accept the first offer =

As a businessman he was too shrewd to accept the first offer.

He is too experienced a conductor to mind what the critics say =

As a conductor he is too experienced to mind what the critics say.

c) too + adverb + infinitive

Itís too soon to say whether the scheme will succeed or not.

She works too slowly to be much use to me.

d) for + noun/pronoun can be placed before the infinitive in this

Itís too heavy for a child to lift.

The grass was too wet for us to sit on.

He spoke too quickly for me to understand.


2. adjective/adverb + enough + infinitive

a) adjective + enough + infinitive

She is old enough to travel by herself.

The ice was thick enough to walk on.

b) enough may be used as pronoun or adjective

He doesnít earn enough (money) to live on.

We havenít enough time to do it properly.

She had enough sense to turn off the gas.

have + enough + abstract noun here is sometimes replaceable by

have + the + noun:

She had the sense to turn off the gas.

We havenít (the) time to do it properly.

(the is optional before time here)

c) adverb + enough + infinitive

He didnít jump high enough to win the prize.

We started early enough to catch the train.

d) for + noun/pronoun can be placed before the infinitive in this

He spoke slowly enough for everyone to understand.

I didnít know him well enough to judge.


3. so + adjective + as + infinitive

He was so foolish as to leave his car unlocked.

This is an alternative to the enough construction, but note that He was
foolish enough to leave his car unlocked
can mean either that he did it or
that he was capable of doing it, but He was so foolish as to leave etc.
implies that he actually did so.

The so Ö as construction is not very often used as shown above, but it is
quite common as a polite request form:

Would you be so good as to forward my letters?

Would you be so kind as to answer the telephone if it rings?


Date: 2015-12-11; view: 1088

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