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Comment on way of semantic change.

Exam practical tasks


1. Represent the Indo-European family of languages. How many branches does it consist of? What are they?

2. What law does this table represent if speaking about Germanic consonants in correspondence between Indo-European and Germanic languages?

  Indo-European Germanic
voiceless stops p t voiceless fricatives f p h
  Lat pater Lat tres Gk kardia OE fæder (father) Goth preis (three) OHG herza (heart)
voiced stops b d g voiceless stops p t
  Rus Lat duo Gk egon OE pol (pool) Goth twai (two) OIcl ek (I)
voiced aspirated stop bh dh gh voiced non-aspirated stops b d g
Snsk bhratar OE brodor Lat frater, Rus Snsk madhu OE medu (mead) Rus *Snsk songha OIcl syngva (sing) Gk omphe (voice)

Explain the given language phenomena.



p t k s


b /d g z/r

Gk hepta Gk pater Gk dekas Snsk ayas  

Goth sibun (seven)

OSc fadir, f'eder

Goth tigus (ten, a dozen)

Goth aiz, OHG er (bronze)


4. How are allophones that occur under influence of the neighboring sounds in different phonetic situations called?

e.g.: a. deal, did - it is slightly palatalized before front vowels

b. bad pain, bedtime - it is pronounced without any plosion

. sudden, admit - it is pronounced with nasal plosion before [n], [m]

d. dry - it becomes post-alveolar followed by [r].

5. How is the following phonetic phenomena called?

port court

[p] and [k] are consonants, occlusive, fortis

the only difference being that [p] is labial and [t] is lingual.

6. How are the articulatory features which do not serve to distinguish meaning called? Is it impossible to oppose an aspirated [ph] to a non-aspirated one in the same phonetic context to distinguish meaning?

7. What is lexicology?(give definition)

What is lexeme? (give definition)


8. What is a word? (give definition)

9. What is vocabulary? (give definition)

10. What is word-group?(give definition)

11. What is unit? (give definition)

12. What is set expression? (give definition)

13. State which of the words possesses wider polysemy and explain why: man, fellow, change, joy, federation, order.

14. Someone once said: "Every language is a dictionary of faded metaphor." Explain why this statement is true.

15. What semantic processes have taken place in the following words in the course of their development:

lord, woman, cutlet, abeyance, challenge, glamour, queen, knave, meat, journal, smart, inn, detriment, spinster, dirge, monster, scandal, vegetable, derive.

16. Can the words given in italics be classified as similes? Back your answer theoretically, Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. He had an egg-like head, frog-like jaws, and a hairy fringe round the lower part of his face, the whole combined with a reddish aquiline nose. 2. He spoke in that sweet and steely voice which he reserved for great occasions. 3. Basil, who had remained throughout the proceedings in a state of Napoleonic calm, suddenly lifted his leonine head. 4. The other man was our old friend, listening with his old forbearing expression and owlish eyes. 5. Among the younger generation was a tall bull-like George... 6. Her almost pretty, not clever face was dimpled with kittenish glee.


17. Pick out the metaphors from the word-combinations.


1. A green bush, a green man, a green apple, green with envy .

2. Seeds of a plant, seeds of evil.

3. A fruitful tree, fruitful work.

4. A fruitless tree, a fruitless effort.

5. The root of a tree, the root of a word.

6. A blooming rose, blooming health.

7. A fading or faded flower, a fading or faded beauty.

18. What way of semantic change can you name?

1. Thoughts wander; one's mind wanders.

2. Spirits rise (fall).

3. One's heart sinks.

4. A touching story.

5. A flight of imagination.

6. To be shaken with grief.

7. Bitter thoughts.

8. Sour smile.

9. Sweet temper.

10. Warm sympathy.

11. To burn with impatience; in the heat of the arguments.

12. Burning wish.

13. A cold smile.

14. To overflow with tenderness or pity.

19. What way of semantic change can you name?


like a plump mouse, like a hungry cat, like a fox, like a bull in a china shop, like a giraffe, like a pig, like a monkey?

20. What way of semantic change can you name?

1. He is the hope of the family. 2. She was the pride of her school. 3.1 have never read Balzac in the original. 4. My sister is fond of old china. 5. The coffee-pot is boiling. 6. The pit loudly applauded. 7. He succeeded to the crown. 8. The authorities were greeted.

21. State whether the singular stands for the plural, the part for the whole, the individual for the class, the more general for the less general, the concrete for the abstract, or vice versa, or the name of the material for the thing made. What way of semantic change can you name?


1. He commanded a fleet of thirty sails. 2. The horse is a domestic animal. 3. Yes, then his liquor goes the wrong way. 4. There is a mixture of the tiger and the ape in the character of a Frenchman. 5. The authorities put an end to the tumult. 6. He was bound in irons. 7.1 have a few coppers in my purse.


22. Point out the examples of hyperbole. Translate them into Russian.


1. I was thunder-struck. 2. Thanks awfully. 3. Utterly amazed, I was speechless. 4. What a stunning thing to do. 5. She was unutterably astonished. 6. The child seemed stupefied, petrified, dumbfounded, flabbergasted.


23. Comment on the phrases, translate into Russian.


1. I beg a thousand pardons. 2. Scared to death. 3. I'd give the world to see him. 4. Good-for-nothing. 5. A magnificent idea. 6. What a foul thing to do.

Comment on way of semantic change.

Lord, lad, marshal, knight, queen, duke, hero, lady.


25. Analyse the development of meaning of the words given in italics in the following sentences. Translate them into Russian.


1. An artful designing woman? Yes, so she is... 2. Charles has been impudent, sir, to be sure, but I do hope no busy people have already prejudiced Sir Oliver against him. 3.1 know him to be artful, selfish.

Date: 2015-12-11; view: 3524

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