Anticipate occurrence of positive and inappropriate behavior
Hold students accountable
Provide specific feedback regarding behavior and expectations
Focus on positive behavior; teacher attention to inappropriate behavior can be reinforcing
Effective praise will:
be contingent on display of positive behavior
specify clearly the behaviors being reinforced
be believable by the student
Methods of coping with inappropriate behavior:
Negative reinforcement focus on behaviors to be increased
Satiation: have student(s) continue behavior until tired of it
Punishment: deliver negative consequences when inappropriate behavior occurs; does not necessarily lead to positive behavior
Behaviorism is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things which organisms do — including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors. It contends that leaning occurs through associations, habit formation and reinforcement. When the learner produces the desired behavior and is reinforced positively, it is likely that behavior be emitted again.
The Audiolingual method
The objective of the audiolingual method is accurate pronunciation and grammar, the ability to respond quickly and accurately in speech situations and knowledge of sufficient vocabulary to use with grammar patterns. Particular emphasis was laid on mastering the building blocks of language and learning the rules for combining them. It was believed that learning structure, or grammar was the starting point for the student. Here are some characteristics of the method:
language learning is habit-formation,
mistakes are bad and should be avoided, as they are considered bad habits,
language skills are learned more effectively if they are presented orally first, then in written form,
analogy is a better foundation for language learning than analysis,
the meanings of words can be learned only in a linguistic and cultural context.
The main activities include reading aloud dialogues, repetitions of model sentences, and drilling. Key structures from the dialogue serve as the basis for pattern drills of different kinds. Lessons in the classroom focus on the correct imitation of the teacher by the students. Not only are the students expected to produce the correct output, but attention is also paid to correct pronunciation. Although correct grammar is expected in usage, no explicit grammatical instruction is given. It is taught inductively. Furthermore, the target language is the only language to be used in the classroom.
It aims at developing listening and speaking skills which is a step away from the Grammar translation method
The use of visual aids has proven its effectiveness in vocabulary teaching.
The method is based on false assumptions about language. The study of language doesn’t amount to studying the “parole”, the observable data. Mastering a language relies on acquiring the rules underlying language performance. That is, the linguistic, sociolinguistic, and discourse competences.
The behaviorist approach to learning is now discredited. Many scholars have proven its weakness. Noam Chomsky ( “Chomsky, Noam (1959). “A Review of B. F. Skinner’s Verbal behavior”) has written a strong criticism of the principles of the theory.
Based on Skinner’s Behaviorism theory, it assumed that a human being can be trained using asystem of reinforcement. Correct behaviour receives positive feedback, while errors receive negative feedback.
This approach to learning is similar to the Direct Method, in that the lesson takes place entirely in the target language.
Emphasis is on the acquisition of patterns in common everyday dialogue.
The Audio-lingual Method was widely used in the 1950s and 1960s, and the emphasis was not on the understanding of words, but rather on the acquisition of structures and patterns in common everyday dialogue.
These patterns are elicited, repeated and tested until the responses given by the student in the foreign language are automatic.
Some characteristics of this method are:
Drills are used to teach structural patterns
Set phrases are memorised with a focus on intonation
Grammatical explanations are kept to a minimum
Vocabulary is taught in context
Audio-visual aids are used
Focus is on pronunciation
Correct responses are positively reinforced immediately
The Audio-lingual Method is still in use today, though normally as a part of individual lessons rather than as the foundation of the course. These types of lessons can be popular as they are relatively simple, from the teacher’s point of view, and the learner always knows what to expect.
Some of the most famous supporters of this method were Giorgio Shenker, who promoted guided self learning with the Shenker method in Italy, and Robin Callan, who created the Callan method.