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1. Read and translate the text. What is the main idea of the text?

2. Find unknown terms and words in the text and give their translations?

In the nearest future, when the production of natural fabrics will not suffice to clothe a rapidly growing population, synthetic and artificial materials will become a necessity. Though great­er discoveries were made in the field of textiles twenty or thirty years ago, researchers today are learning better ways to use new materials, including mixing synthetics among themselves or with wool or cotton. The most popular synthetics remain Tergal and its derivatives, nylon and rilsan, which brought new life to the manufacturing of undergarments and stockings and were a particularly welcome development when tights came into vogue.

As for designers, they continue to prefer traditional textiles. It is also interesting to note the designers' use of textiles intend­ed for uses other than fashion: Castelbajac used Pyrenean wool blankets and mattress ticking, while several others used terrycloth in their designs.

The hosiery trade during this period was booming. Hosiery, long seen as unfashionable articles of clothing to be hidden under other garments, was now being produced in mesh fab­rics with printed or woven patterns for men and women. Man­ufactured much more quickly and thus more cheaply, than woven fabrics, the new mesh fabrics also had the advantage of being more wrinkle-resistant. The base of "fake fur" was made of mesh material. Design­ers had long tried to imitate real fur with synthetic materials. With the surge of ecologists' campaigns to protect endangered species, the trend toward fake furs rose. But many designers, Emmanuelle Khahn and Paco Rabanne among them, also fab­ricated whimsical variations on the real thing – fake animal skins that were cheaper than the original.

Paco Rabanne was the greatest innovator of the day with regards to the use of materials. He made a name for himself in 1966, when he created armoured dresses made of chains or hammered-metal plates, decorated with crystal beads, cellophane patches, pebbles, buttons, ostrich feathers, and pieces of plas­tic and celluloid. Among his inventions were knit fur, moulded raincoats, and dresses whose torsos were covered with an Afri­can-inspired mask. His dresses made of "normal" fabrics were often adorned with metallic embroidery or large collars that became part of the bodice. Paco Rabanne continues to use the most unusual and varied materials in his embroidered work.

Others followed in Rabanne's path. Issey Miyake created moulded-plastic bodices, as well as varnished-wicker collar pieces and headgear. Pierre Cardin made dresses out of "Car-dine," a wrinkle proof crinkled fabric. Thierry Mugler de­signed golden metal armour plates to be worn with crêpe skirts.

This era also witnessed a heightened appreciation for both real and imitation leather, which had the advantage of existing in larger pieces than natural leather. Dull or shiny, leather was very much in fashion, used in pants, jackets, and motorcycle suits, but also in women's coats. The specialists in leather clothes have been Claude Montana, Azzedine Alaïa, and, more recently, Hubert de Givenchy.

Finally, one must mention the new unwoven fabrics that were produced through a process analogous to that of paper manufacturing and were meant for only one wearing. They were used to make surgical uniforms, jackets for airplane passengers, and uniforms for mechanics. When crimped, these fabrics could be used for beach dresses, bathing suits, and un­derwear. Because the fibres of the material were held together by resin, new self-adhesive facings were obtained that were applied with a hot iron, thus replacing the more expensive tra­ditional methods of lining.

Date: 2015-12-11; view: 872

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