1. 'If a negotiation in India gets heated because of different objectives, avoid eye contact with your counterpart since it could be read as aggressive and disrespectful.'
This is not true. To the contrary, making eye contact conveys sincerity in India and might therefore help in this case.
2. 'Oral commitments can represent legally binding contracts in Germany.' This is true. Proving oral statements in court can be difficult, though, so the legal risk may not be high. However, most Germans will expect all commitments, whether oral or in writing, to be kept.
3. 'Venezuelans communicate quite directly. They will usually let you know right away if they don't like the terms and conditions of your proposal.'
This is true. Venezuelans tend to be more direct than other Latin Americans.
4. 'Decision-making in Ireland is often very quick, assuming you are dealing with the right person.'
This is true. Irish organizations are often very hierarchical, though, so verify first that you are indeed dealing with the decision maker.
5. 'The Chinese won't spend much time gathering and exchanging information since they are often eager to get started with the bargaining exchange.'
This is not true. Before the bargaining phase of a negotiation can begin, Chinese negotiators may spend considerable time finding out whatever they can about the other side. Normally, there won't be a lot of direct information exchange, though.
6. 'When making decisions, Brazilians usually look at the specifics of a situation rather than following universal rules.'
This is true. Unlike people in so-called 'universalist' cultures, for instance Americans or Germans, Brazilians tend to give more weight to situational circumstances.
7. 'Your opening offer with a Sweden negotiator should leave at least 30-40% bargaining room, since your counterpart will expect you to stay flexible and allow them to obtain 'a good deal'.'
This is not true. Most Swedes dislike bargaining and haggling. They expect you to open with an offer that is already in the ballpark of what you expect.
8. 'Negotiators in Israel often use silence as a pressure tactic to obtain further concessions.'
This is not true. Silence is rare in conversations among Israelis, and they usually don't use it as a tactic either.
9. 'In the Netherlands, a person sucking their thumb is signaling that he or she does not believe you.'
This is true. Almost everyone in the country will immediately understand this non-verbal message.
10. 'If a negotiation in Mexico gets stuck in a dispute over some detail, you may be able to resolve it quickly by appealing to the personal relationship you have with your counterpart.'
This is true. The strength of personal relationships is key when negotiating in Mexico, and it will be very important should conflicts arise.
11. 'Contracts in Saudi Arabia are expected to include lots of details and therefore often take a long time to create and agree on.'
This is not true. Saudis usually prefer contracts to be simple and high-level, since they consider them a mere formality.
12. 'In Japan, prices rarely move by more than 10-15% from initial offer to final agreement.'
This is not true. Although concessions may not be easy to get, prices may move by up to 40% or so during negotiations in Japan.
13. 'When visiting a potential business partner in France for the first time, do not bring a gift along as this could raise suspicion about your motives.'
This is true. It is advisable to refrain from any gift-giving until an agreement has been reached.
14. 'Aggressive or adversarial negotiation behavior in Russia indicates that your counterparts do not feel good about the relationship between you.'
This is not true. Although the strength of your personal relationship will have an influence, Russians may appear rather aggressive even when negotiating with someone they like and respect.
15. 'In Taiwan, it is strongly advisable to negotiate in a team rather than as an individual.'
This is true. Individuals negotiating in Taiwan enjoy less respect, may not be taken seriously, and may become 'easy prey' for a skilled team of Taiwanese negotiators.
16. 'Using English-language presentation material is ok everywhere in Canada, though Franco-Canadians may prefer to see some of it in French.'
This is not true. Many Canadian companies may require your material to be bilingual. In the Quebec province, this may even be required by law.
17. 'Bringing a legal counselor to business negotiations in Italy is a good idea because the country has a very complicated catalog of business laws. Your local counterparts will likely also include an attorney on their side.'
This is not true. Your Italian counterparts likely interpret this step as a sign of mistrust on your side.
18. 'In Malaysia, written contracts are almost always kept since personal honor is a strong value in the country.'
This is not true. Similar to Koreans or Chinese, Malasians do not view contracts as continually binding documents. You as their contract partner will be expected to remain flexible if conditions change.
19. 'If your negotiation in South Korea reaches a critical point, it can be most effective to have a one-on-one conversation with the most senior local manager in order to resolve disagreements.'
This is true. Unlike in most other Asian countries where this approach is not promising, individual discussions may help establish agreement in South Korea.
20. 'In the United Kingdom, final decisions usually require top management approval. That authority rarely gets delegated to others.'
This is true. While negotiating teams in the U.K. may appear consensus-oriented, they do not view decision-making a team sport.
3.11-to commit faith bargaining; 2-impetus to negotiate; 3-providing needed information; 4-exercising legitimate authority; 5-to terminate in agreement; 6-to mobilize public opinion; 7-negative consequences; 8-a judicial decision; 9-artificial deadlines; 10-conitued turmoil
3.2 1-Identifiable parties who are willing to participate; 2-Interdependence; 3-Readiness to negotiate; 4-Means of influence or leverage; 5- Agreement on some issues and interests; 6- Will to settle; 7- Unpredictability of outcome; 8-A sense of urgency and deadline; 9-No major psychological barriers to settlement; 10- Issues must be negotiable; 11- The people must have the authority to decide; 12-A willingness to compromise; 13-The agreement must be reasonable and implementable; 14- External factors favorable to settlement; 15- Resources to negotiate