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V. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word.

  1. Every citizen has the right to an equal __________ before the law.
1) case 2) investigation 3) study 4) treatment 5) discussion
  1. People with low incomes receive help from various legal aid schemes to __________ the costs of the lawyer.
1) meet 2) pay 3) give 4) help 5) count
  1. Strict rules exist to protect suspects against any ________ by the authorities.
1) offences 2) attacs 3) wrongs 4) blunders 5) abuses
  1. An arrested person has the right to consult a _______ in England and Wales.
1) prosecutor 2) judge 3) solicitor 4) detective 5) policeman
  1. An accused person is regarded as ________ until proved guilty.
1) suspected 2) accused 3) convict 4) innocent 5) charged

 

 

2. V. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word.

  1. A conviction can be ______on appeal if the evidence is improperly presented in court.
1) quashed 2) cancelled 3) annull 4) abated 5) avoided
  1. Typical _____ disputes are those between tenants and landlords or those between employees and employers.
1) criminal 2) civil 3) labour 4) administrative 5) judicial
  1. Nobody is above the law; public authorities can be successfully _____ in the civil courts.
1) sued 2) accused 3) convicted 4) suspected 5) detained
  1. In England and Wales an arrested person cannot be _______ in police custody beyond 36 hours without a warrant being obtained from a lay justice.
1) held 2) detained 3) kept 4) arrested 5) delayed
  1. The police must _______ a suspect before any questions are put for the purpose of obtaining evidence.
1) warn 2) tell 3) foresee 4) caution 5) explain

 

 

3. V. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word.

  1. Police are strictly forbidden to use _______ to obtain answers from suspects.
1) violence 2) force 3) strength 4) anger 5) energy
  1. Most people are released on bail after being __________with an offence.
1) blamed 2) judged 3) sentenced 4) defeated 5) charged
  1. The prosecution and the defence may ______individual jurors on grounds of possible bias.
1) put off 2) refuse 3) challenge 4) reject 5) let down
  1. An accused person is regarded as innocent until proved _______.
1) blameworthy 2) guilty 3) offence 4) convict 5) non-guilty
  1. Anyone convicted by a court has the right of _______ to higher courts against conviction or sentence.
1) appeal 2) allowance 3) demand 4) redress 5) request

 

4. V. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word.

  1. An accused person is regarded as ______ until proved guilty.
1) accused 2) free 3) innocent 4) suspect 5) convicted
  1. Anyone ______with an offence has the right to legal representation in court.
1) suspected 2) sentenced 3) imprisoned 4) authorozed 5) charged
  1. The defence has the right to the last speech at a ____trial before the judge sums up.
1) judicial 2) law 3) legal 4) jury 5) court
  1. In the UK typical civil disputes are those between tenants and landlords or those between employees and ________.
1) owners 2) workers 3) employers 4) bankers 5) producers
  1. England and Wales are known to have _____many laws and legal principles that originated eight centuries ago.
1) kept 2) retained 3) saved 4) produced 5) adopted

 



 

5. V. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word.

  1. A court must be satisfied beyond reasonable doubt that a defendant has committed the crime before reaching a ‘_______’ verdict.
1) innocent 2) non-guilty 3) wrong 4) guilty 5) suspect
  1. Most people are released on ______ after being charged with an offence.
1) bail 2) swear 3) oath 4) word 5) promise
  1. People charged with serious crimes such as murder, manslaughter, rape and robbery are ______in front of a jury.
1) judged 2) tried 3) convicted 4) charged 5) punished
  1. A lawyer has the right to _________ prosecution witnesses.
1) cross-examine 2) examine 3) ask 4) demand 5) inquire
  1. Judges do not merely _______ the law; in some cases they make laws.
1) use 2) have 3) apply 4) change 5) adopt

 

 

6. V. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word.

  1. The doctrine of _____is still a central feature of modern common law systems.
1) precedence 2) presidency 3) precaution 4) precedent 5) law
  1. The spread of _____law in the world is due both to the widespread influence of Britain in the world and the growth of the USA.
1) common 2) general 3) legal 4) civil 5) criminal
  1. ________ systems are sometimes known as codified legal systems.
1) judicial 2) law 3) doctrine 4) continental 5) contestant
  1. In order to separate the roles of the ______ and judiciary, it is necessary to make laws that were clear and comprehensive.
1) legislature 2) legitimacy 3) legislation 4) legislator 5) legality
  1. The courts are able to ________ the constitutional legality of a law made by parliament.
1) change 2) challenge 3) reject 4) refuse 5) deny

 

 

7. V. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word.

  1. The clear distinction between _______ and judiciary has weakened in many countries, where courts are able to challenge the constitutional legality of a law made by parliament.
1) legislature 2) legitimacy 3) power 4) legislator 5) government
  1. In many countries legislators wanted to break with previous case law, which had often produced ______ and biased judgment.
1) wrong 2) unbiased 3) incorruptible 4) dishonest 5) corrupt
  1. A shoplifter is a person who ______ from shops.
1) robs 2) steals 3) breaks 4) attacks 5) buys
  1. A ________ is a person who brings goods into a country illegally without paying tax.
1) mugger 2) robber 3) smuggler 4) pickpocket 5) burglar
  1. The principle of separation of power was adopted in order to _____ the control of a state over its citizens.
1) strengthen 2) weaken 3) emphasise 4) minimise 5) increase

 

 

8. V. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word.

  1. President of the United States is _______ for a term of four years.
1) appointed 2) elected 3) chosen 4) applied 5) proposed
  1. It takes much longer to have a case heard in the Crown Court, but ______ prefer it because the case is decided by the jury, ordinary members of the public.
1) defendances 2) defences 3) defendants 4) prisoners 5) offenders
  1. The ______ on a jury is compulsory and cannot be avoided without a good reason, such as illness.
1) work 2) service 3) job 4) practice 5) fulfillment
  1. Such serious crime, like ______, cannot be heard by the magistrates and must go to the Crown Court.
1) murderer 2) killer 3) murder 4) robbery 5) forgery
  1. The process of taking an action from a low court to a higher court may be __________ and very costly.
1) time-consuming 2) timely 3) time-worn 4) timeless 5) time-saving

 

 

9. V. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word.

  1. A terrorist is a person who uses _______ for political reasons.
1) violence 2) force 3) strength 4) effort 5) action
  1. A _____dealer buys and sells drugs illegally.
1) medicine 2) tablet 3) pill 4) drug 5) cocaine
  1. . Juries _____ only in criminal courts.
1) present 2) serve 3) speak 4) talk 5) work
  1. The U.S. Supreme Court is the highest appellate court _______.

 

1) rank 2) instance 3) interval 4) chain 5) level
  1. Most schools in many countries no longer have _______ punishment.

 

1) physical 2) capital 3) bodily 4) corporal 5) severe

 

 

10. V. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word.

  1. Amnesty International works to release people imprisoned for their beliefs, to ______ the use of torture, and to abolish the death penalty.
1) reject 2) refuse 3) object 4) ban 5) abandon
  1. Torture is defined in the 1949 Geneva Convention as the deliberate, systematic ______of physical and mental suffering.
1) damage 2) infliction 3) pain 4) injury 5) wound
  1. Sometimes ________ is used to extract information from prisoners, and sometimes for no other reason than to hurt and frighten them.
1) torture 2) force 3) action 4) suffering 5) deed
  1. The police had enough _________ of John’s accomplice.
1) testimony 2) information 3) explanation 4) proof 5) fact
  1. _______punishment would be abolished in all countries if it hadn’t been serious crimes like murder and rape.
1) corporal 2) brutal 3) commuted 4) capital 5) cruel

 

 

11. V. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word.

  1. Amnesty International works to _____ people imprisoned for their beliefs, to ban the use of torture, and to abolish the death penalty.
1) abandon 2) free 3) release 4) let go 5) make go
  1. Death penalty is available in most states today for the most ____ crimes such as murder.
1) computer 2) attempted 3) serious 4) common 5)compulsive
  1. A burglar is a person who _______into the house to steal.
1) rushes 2) breaks 3) enters 4) comes 5) goes
  1. A hijacker is a person who ______ control of a plane by force and makes pilot change course.
1) loses 2) spins 3) takes 4) does 5) makes
  1. The verdict of a jury should be unanimous, though sometimes a _____verdict is acceptable.
1) majority 2) minority 3) positive 4) negative 5) formal

 

 

12. V. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word.

  1. The defendant was accused of ______ a crime by the jury.
1) performing 2) committing 3) acting 4) doing 5) making
  1. Prisoners of ______ are people who had never used or advocated violence and were simply in prison because of their political or religious beliefs.
1) conscience 2) military 3) war 4) secure 5) honour
  1. Amnesty International works to release people imprisoned for their beliefs, to ban the use of torture, and to ______the death penalty.
1) forbid 2) prohibit 3) abolish 4) suppress 5) bar
  1. The accused was released on _____after being chargedwith an offence.
1) word 2) promise 3) persuasion 4) bail 5) argument
  1. The witnesses saw how the accident happened and gave truthful _______to the judge.
1) information 2) evidence 3) fact 4) story 5) description

 

 

13. V. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word.

  1. In a Crown Court trial there are twelve ______.
1) judges 2) prosecutors 3) jurors 4) barristers 5) lawyers
  1. When the police _____ somebody on suspicion of having committed a crime, they have to follow certain procedure.
1) arrest 2) pursue 3) hold 4) prosecute 5) chase
  1. Unless the police obtain special permission, they are not allowed to ______ a person for more than twenty-four hours.
1) keep 2) hold 3) save 4) detain 5) preserve
  1. In cases where a panel of magistrates (usually three) has decided somebody is guilty of a crime, they can also ______ a punishment.
1) impose 2) accuse 3) effect 4) set 5) put
  1. Magistrates are just ordinary people of good reputation who have been ____ to the job by a local committee.
1) fixed 2) made 3) put 4) given 5) appointed

 

 

14. V. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word.

  1. The members of the jury are not paid but they are given ____while they are on jury service, which is usually for about two weeks.
1) money 2) payment 3) bonuses 4) expenses 5) costs
  1. Unless the police ____ special permission, they are not allowed to detain a person for more than twenty-for hours.
1) achieve 2) obtain 3) reach 4) take 5) have
  1. Magistrates, who are also known as Justices of the Peace, are not trained _______.
1) lawyers 2) practitioners 3) workers 4) specialists 5) executors
  1. It is the judge’s job to ______ a punishment on those found guilty of crimes.
1) force 2) impose 3) cause 4) fulfill 5) make
  1. If it is someone’s first offence, and the crime is a small one, even a guilty person is often unconditionally ________.
1) left 2) freed 3) discharged 4) charged 5) imprisoned

 

 

15. V. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word.

  1. In Britain magistrates do not get salaries or a fee for their work, though they get paid _______.
1) money 2) bonus 3) payment 4) costs 5) expenses
  1. Juries consist of ______ people selected at random from the list of voters.
1) twelve 2) fourteen 3) twenty 4) twenty-one 5) twenty-nine
  1. A convicted person may appeal to the Court of Criminal Appeal in London either to have the conviction _______ or to have the sentence reduced.
1) turned 2) returned 3) quashed 4) changed 5) confirmed
  1. The duty of the judge during the trial is to act as the referee while the prosecution and defence put their cases and question witnesses, and to decide what ______ is admissible and what is not.
1) offence 2) evidence 3) sign 4) fact 5) proof
  1. A conditional ________ means that the guilty person is set free but if he or she commits another crime within a stated time, the first crime will be taken into account.
1) freedom 2) leave 3) charge 4) discharge 5) change

 

 

16. V. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word.

  1. In order a _____ to be reached, there must be agreement among at least ten jurors.
1) verdict 2) decision 3) opinion 4) thought 5) idea
  1. A convicted person may appeal to the Court of Criminal Appeal in London either to have the conviction quashed or to have the sentence ________.
1) cut 2) destroyed 3) reduced 4) changed 5) charged
  1. A guilty person may be set free and put on _______, which means that regular meetings with a social worker must take place.
1) improvement 2) period 3) regulation 4) probation 5) anticipation
  1. A very common form of punishment for minor offences is a _____, which means that the guilty person has to pay a sum of money.
1) fine 2) money 3) custody 4) payment 5) cost
  1. The American Constitution is based on the doctrine of the ______ of powers between the executive, legislative and judiciary.
1) separation 2) distinction 3) division 4) measure 5) gradation

 

 

17. V. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word.

  1. In order for a verdict to be reached, there must be ______ among at least ten jurors.
1) consensus 2) understanding 3) opinion 4) agreement 5) decision
  1. The duty of the judge during the trial is to act as the referee while the _____ and defence put their cases and question witnesses, and to decide what evidence is admissible and what is not.
1) prosecution 2) charge 3) accusation 4) conviction 5) charging
  1. A very common form of punishment for _____ offences is a fine, which means that the guilty person has to pay a sum of money.
1) serious 2) small 3) minor 4) major 5) dangerous
  1. Wherever possible, magistrates and judges try not to ________ people.
1) imprison 2) release 3) free 4) discharge 5) forgive
  1. The only function of ______ is to present cases in court.
1) judges 2) solicitors 3) barristers 4) clerks 5) attorneys

 

 

18. V. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word.

  1. People who are sent to prison often get ______- of their sentence for good behaviour.
1) reduction 2) forgiveness 3) decrease 4) increase 5) remission
  1. There is no death penalty in Britain, except for _______.
1) treason 2) terrorism 3) spying 4) murder 5) hijacking
  1. There are two distinct kinds of lawyers in Britain: a ______ and a barrister.
1) attorney 2) solicitor 3) judge 4) clerk 5) secretary
  1. In order to make the arrest legal the police must caution an arrested person: ‘You do not have to say anything unless you wish to do so, but what you say may be given in _______.’
1) proof 2) sign 3) evidence 4) fact 5) offence
  1. One way to ______ the level of crime is to interview people and ask them whether they have been the victims of crime.
1) estimate 2) judge 3) calculate 4) consider 5) regard

 

 

19. V. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word.

  1. There is no death ______ in Britain, except for treason.
1) penalty 2) punishment 3) nuisance 4) torture 5) visitation
  1. There are two distinct kinds of lawyers in Britain: a solicitor and a _______.
1) attorney 2) judge 3) clerk 4) secretary 5) barrister
  1. _____ is a sum of money guaranteed by somebody on behalf of a person who has been charged with a crime so that he/she can go free until the time of the trial.
1) bail 2) money 3) payment 4) bribe 5) gift
  1. It is generally accepted that in the last quarter of the twentieth century, the number of crimes has gone up because of a lack of confidence in the ability of the police to _____ criminals.
1) find 2) catch 3) capture 4) take 5) hold
  1. The system of _____ in England and Wales, in both civil and criminal cases, is and adversarial system.
1) justice 2) judgment 3) treatment 4) fairness 5) refereeing

 

 

20. V. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word.

  1. For murderers, there is an obligatory life ______ in Britain.
1) judgment 2) decision 3) condemnation 4) sentence 5) punishment
  1. If the trail is to be heard, the solicitor normally hires the services of the other kind of a lawyer – a _______-.
1) barrister 2) judge 3) prosecutor 4) juror 5) attorney
  1. One way to ______ the level of crime is to interview people and ask them whether they have been the victims of crime.
1) calculate 2) estimate 3) judge 4) consider 5) regard
  1. The duty of the judge during the trial is to act as the referee while the prosecution and ______ put their cases and question witnesses.
1) guard 2) protection 3) security 4) defence 5) counterattack
  1. The magistrate may decide that it is not necessary to hold the suspect in ______.
1) custody 2) control 3) arrest 4) order 5) view

 


Date: 2015-12-11; view: 322


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