The US economy remains the biggest and most influential economy in the world. Yet, despite its status the US economy is experiencing unprecedented problems and the threat of a recession is only one of many problems affecting the US economy. Many of the economic problems faced by the US were largely avoidable and are the result of economic mismanagement at various levels.
The American economy is described as a free enterprise system, which allows private business the freedom to operate for profit with minimum government regulation. The USA today is a leading economic power with a high standard of living and enormous productivity in industry and agriculture. 60% of all families and individuals are in the middle-income or high-income rank.
Industrial and technological position of the states is very high. The USA is the leading producer of electrical energy, aluminium, copper and paper, and one of the top producers of natural gas and automobiles. No other nation exports as much high technology as the USA.
Technological advancement has accelerated changes in American agriculture. Farming is highly mechanized and commercialized, but at the same time it requires much investment. U. S. farmers produce enough food for domestic consumption and still supply 15% of the world’s food need.
Despite its huge domestic production, the economy of America depends heavily on foreign imports. Until recently the US exported more goods than it imported.
It should be specially emphasized that the condition of the U. S. economy depends to a vast extent on the world-wide oil prices. If they are at a low-rate American economy prospers, otherwise it is in a decline. That is why America has an urge to control the oil field in Iraq which will give it an opportunity to control also over the world one.
As a leading producer and exporter of technology the USA contributes to the worldwide economic growth. It exports more machinery and invests more money in technological research than any other country.
American businesses and industries operate all over the world. American investment boosts of other economies by providing them employment, technology and new products.
ÒÅÌÀ 10 My speciality My name is Ilya and I’m 21 years old. I study at the Universety. People often ask me these days what my plans for the future are. I know that there are many interesting professions in the world, including bank mangers, lawyers, doctors, policemen, designers, but I want to be an engineer. They say that it’s a difficult profession and it requires good knowledge of physics and mathematics. I’m ready to give it a try. My teachers also say that I’m rather good at this field. I have analytical skills, logical thinking and I’m attentive to details. . My father says that engineers need excellent technical knowledge, so he helps me with that. Moreover, strong computer skills are required, as most of the equipment today is computerized. If I become a mechanical engineer, I will definitely have to deal with machinery and software programs for problem solving. I think I should be fine with these subjects. That's I entered to the Technological University,. In my opinion, engineering is a great profession. It gives lots of opportunities for development and self-growth. There are so many interesting fields that I can choose from, such as civil engineering, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, aerospace engineering etc.
ÒÅÌÀ 6 Great Britain (economy, industries, educational system)
The United Kingdom is one of the worlds largest exporters of manufactured goods per head of population. For every person employed in agriculture eleven people are employed in mining, manufacturing and building.
Apart from coal and iron ore Britain has very few natural resources. Its agriculture provides only half the food it needs. Most of if the raw materials such as oil and various metals (copper zinc, uranium ore and others) have to be imported. Britain also has to import timber, cotton, fruit and farm products.
Great Britainis a highly developed industrial country. London is the biggest city. It is important for products of all kinds including food, instrument engineering, electrical and electronic engineering, clothing, furniture and printing. It has some heavy engineering plants and several leading research establishments. London is a great port with many docks. It is also the centre of commerce.A hundred years ago the north of England was industrial heart of the country. From the factories came cloth, wool, machines, engines and china. The old factories came have gone now and the workers have to look for jobs in the new high-tech industries. The centre of England (the Midlands) is also an important industrial area, especially near the huge cities of Coventry and Birmingham, the centre of the car industry. Further north is Manchester, one of the main centres for electrical and heavy engineering and for the production of a wide range of goods including computers, electronic equipment, petrochemicals, dye- stuffs and pharmaceuticals.
The educational system of G.B. is extremely complex and bewildering. It is very difficult to generalize particular types of schools as schools differ from one to the other. Each school has it's own board of governors consisting of teachers, parents, local politicians, members of local community, businessmen and sometimes pupils. According to the law only one subject is compulsory. It is religious instruction.Schooling for children is compulsory from 5 to 16, though some provision is made for children under 5 and some pupils remain at school after 16 to prepare for higher education.The state school system is usually divided into 2 stages (secondary and primary).The majority of primary schools are mixed.They are subdivided into infant schools (ages 5 to 7),and junior schools (ages 7 to11).