Semantic field is a closely knit sector of vocabulary characterized by a common concept (e.g. in the semantic field of space we find nouns - expanse, extent, surface; verbs - to extend, to spread, to span; adjectives - spacious, roomy, vast, broad). The member of the semantic fields are not synonymous but all of them are joined together by some common semantic component. This component common to all the members of the field is sometimes described as the common denominator of meaning, like the concept of kinship, concept of colour, parts of the human body and so on. The basis of grouping in this case is not only linguistic but also extra-linguistic: the words are associated, because the things they name together and are closely connected in reality.
Thematic (or ideographic) groups of words joined together by common contextual associations within the framework of the sentence and reflect the interlinking of things and events in objective reality. Contextual association are formed as a result of regular co-occurrence of words in similar repeatedly used contexts.
Thematic or ideographic groups are independent of classification into parts of speech. Words and expression are here classed not according to their lexico-grammatical meaning but strictly according to their signification, i.e. to the system of logical notions (e.g. tree - grow - green; sunshine - brightly - blue - skyj,
Hyponymy is the semantic relationship of inclusion existing between elements of various levels. Thus, e.g. vehicle includes car, bus, taxi. The hyponymic relationship is the relationship between the meaning of the general and the individual terms.
A hyperonym is a generic term which serves as the name of the general as distinguished from the names of the species-hyponyms. In other words the more specific term is called the hvponym. For instance, animal is a generic term as compared to the specific names wolf, dog, mouse (these are called equonyms). Dog, in its turn, may serve as a generic term for different breeds such as bull-dog, collie, poodle, etc.
20. Phraseology: Free word combination and phraseological word combination. The problem of definition of phraseological word combination. The essential features of phraseological units: lack of semantic motivation (idiomaticity) and lexical and grammatical stability. The concept of reproducibility.
Phraseological unit is a non-motivated word-group that cannot be freely made up in speech but is reproduced as a ready made unit.
Reproducibility is regular use of phraseological units in speech as single unchangeable collocations.
Idiomaticity is the quality of phraseological unit, when the meaning of the whole is not deducible from the sum of the meaning of the parts.
Stability of phraseological unit implies that it exists as a ready-made linguistic unit which does not allow of any variability of its lexical components of grammatical structure.
1. In lexicology there is great ambiguity of the terms phraseology and idioms. Opinions differ as to how phraseology should be defined, classified, described and analyzed. The word "phraseology" has very different meanings in this country and in Great Britain or the United States. In linguistic literature the term is used for the expressions where the meaning of one element is dependent on the other, irrespective of the structure and properties of the unit (V.V.Vinogradov); with other authors it denotes only such set expressions which do not possess expressiveness or emotional colouring (A.I.Smirnitsky), and also vice versa: only those that are imaginative, expressive and emotional (I.V.Arnold). N.N.Amosova calls such expressions fixed context units, i.e. units in which it is impossible to substitute any of the components without changing the meaning not only of the whole unit but also of the elements that remain intact. O.S.Ahmanova insists on the semantic integrity of such phrases prevailing over the structural separateness of their elements. A.V.Koonin lays stress on the structural separateness of the elements in a phraseological unit, on the change of meaning in the whole as compared with its elements taken separately and on a certain minimum stability.
In English and American linguistics no special branch of study exists, and the term "phraseology" has a stylistic meaning, according to Webster's dictionary 'mode of expression, peculiarities of diction, i.e. choice and arrangement of words and phrases characteristic of some author or some literary work'.
Difference in terminology ("set-phrases", "idioms", "word-equivalents") reflects certain differences in the main criteria used to distinguish types of phraseological units and free word-groups. The term "set phrase" implies that the basic criterion of differentiation is stability of the lexical components and grammatical structure of word groups.
The term "idiom" generally implies that the essential feature of the linguistic units is idiomaticity or lack of motivation.
The term "word-equivalent" stresses only semantic but also functional inseparability of certain word groups, their aptness to function in speech as single words.