This Complex consists of a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case and the infinitive. It is mostly translated into Russian by an object. The function in the sentence is a part of a complex object clause.
The construction is used after verbs of:
1) mental activity: to know, to think, to consider, to expect, to believe etc.
2) declaring: to declare, to report, to pronounce, etc.
3) wish and intention: to want, to wish, to desire, to mean, to intend, etc.
4) feeling and emotion: to like, to love, to hate, canít bare etc.
5)order, compulsion and permission: to order, to allow, to have, to make, to get, to let.
6) sense perception: to hear, to see, to watch, to feel, etc.
Note: After these verbs only the indefinite Infinitive Active is used. If the meaning is passive we use Participle II.
If the process is expressed Participle I Indefinite Active is used.
1) I believe it to have been a mistake.2) They reported the enemy to be ten miles away.3) I want you to come along with us.4) I hate you to be troubled.5) What makes you think it was me? Let him sit here if he wants.6) I sawhim get on the bus this morning. I saw the fireslowly conquered.He saw Carol coming.
The SubjectiveĖ withĖ the-Infinitive
Construction consists of a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative and any of the six forms of the infinitive. The function in the sentence isthe subject of the sentence.
1) with the following groups ofverbs in the Passive Voice:
to see to expect
to hear to believe
to think to suppose
to consider to say
to know to report
to allow to forbid
2) with the following parts ofsynonyms in the Active Voice:
to seem = to appear
to prove = to turn out
to happen= to chance
3) with word groups containing adjectives/ adverbs.
to be (un) likely
to be sure
to be certain/to be bound
to be anxious
to be pleased
to be easy/to be happy, etc.
1) She was heard to laugh heartily.
He is supposed to have left.
He is said to be a good doctor.
2) He seems to notice nothing unusual.
The girl appeared to be everybodyís attention.
3) He is sure to come.
He was not likely to have madea mistake.
He is easy to deal with.
For Ė Complex
This construction is introduced by the preposition for. It consists of a noun or a pronoun in the objective case and an infinitive (or an infinitive word-group). For is not translated into Russian. The construction is translated by a subordinate clause or infinitive.
We use for + noun phrase + infinitive after:
1. an adjective
2. a noun phrase
3. a verb
a) In the function of the adverbial modifier of purpose
to do smth for smb to do smth
b) In the function of the adverbial modifier of result
(too)cold/warm (enough) for smb to do smth
c) often after a verb which has for after it.
1. It will be bestfor her to continuethis way2. It is not the right timefor us to speakabout it.Thereís nothing for him to do about it.3. a) I have arrangedfor you to havea private room.b) The day was much too cold and rainyfor anyone to have a good time.c) We are still waitingfor them to reply.
Ex. 1. Read the story and analyse the forms and functions of the Infinitive.
The Brave Old Lady
Mrs Johns, a 75-year-old widow, woke up with a start. Peering into the darkness, she was astonished to see a man in her room. It was easy to see he was a burglar. At first, she was too afraid to move. Then she plucked up her courage and said, ĎWe must talk about this over a cup of tea. Would you be so kind to help me with the tea downstairs?í To her surprise, the man meekly obeyed. He was eager to help and anxious to please the old lady. He prepared the tea and said he was sorry to have disturbed her. He was too frightened to run away. After a cup of tea, he said he would be glad to give Mrs Johns his name and address and left empty-handed. Of course, Mrs Johns informed the police, who commended her for bravery. Later, during the trial, the judge said it was his duty to send the man to prison, describing him as the most incompetent burglar he had ever met!
Ex. 2. Complete the sentences to use Indefinite, Continuous and Perfect Infinitives according to the context.
Model: She has grown taller. Ė She seems to have growntaller.
1. Kate makes friends easily. She tends Ö 2. He is getting used to his new job. He appearsÖ 3. He has finished the report. He claims Ö 4. It is raining over there. It seems Ö 5. He is on a diet. He appears Ö 6. They have sailed round the world. They claim Ö 7. She is feeling better. She seems Ö 8. A: Whatís Liz doing? B: She seems Ö (look) for something in her bag. 9. A: Alan has been offered a new job! B: No, he hasnít. He just pretended Ö (offer) a new job. 10.ņ: “ŗrŗ seems Ö (work) hard all morning. B: Yes, she hasnít even stopped for a cup of coffee.
Ex. 3. Insert to where necessary before the infinitives in brackets.
Model: Iím sorry (disappoint) you but I canít (let) you (have) any more money till the end of the month.
Iím sorry to disappoint you but I canít let you have any more money till the end of the month.
1. Iíd like him (go) to a university but I canít (make) him (go). 2. He was made (do) his work independently. 3. You neednít (say) anything. Just nod your head and he will understand. 4. They wonít let us (leave) the Customs shed till our luggage has been examined. 5. He would sooner (die) than (betray) his friends. 6. Why not (start) out right now? 7. I need scarcely (tell) you that Iím in trouble. 8. He was never heard (complain) of difficulties. 9. Donít let us (waste) time. There are hundreds of things (be done) 10. I have never known him (do) such things. 11. Will you help me (move) the bookcase? 12. There is hardly anything (do) but (work) out an alternative plan.