Further education is a broad term to cover education beyond the secondary stage. It includes vocational education, non-vocational education and adult education. Further education can be provided through evening classes, further education (FE) colleges, universities’ extra-mural departments.
The proportion of young people entering university and other advanced education rose from 1 in 8 in 1980 to 1 in 5 in 1990 and reached 1 in 3 by the year 2000.
The competition to enter universities is now very strong, and students who do not do well at a – level may be unable to find a place.
British education is now a matter of great concern to parents, employers, politicians, students and schoolchildren. School inspectors have criticised standards in mathematics, technology, writing and reading skills and English. Students can choose subject areas, and teaching is mainly by the lecture system, supported by tutorials (small groups) and seminars. Most students tend to live on campus in university accommodation, while others choose to live in rented property outside the university.
All universities have complete academic freedom. They appoint their staff, decide which students to admit, provide their own courses and award their own degrees.
University examinations are for Bachelor of Arts or of Science (BA or BSc) on completion of the undergraduate course, and Master of Arts or of Science (MA or MSc) on completion of postgraduate work, usually a one- or two-year course involving come original research. Some students continue to complete a three-year period of original research for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD).
A variety of other institutions also offer higher education. They are the Royal College of Art, the Canfield Institute of Technology, various business schools, agricultural, drama and art colleges.
The Open University -is an educational service that used television, radio and correspondence courses to teach its students. The Open University opened in 1969; its first courses started in 1971.
The standards at the Open University are the same as those of other universities. The degrees are awarded on a system of credits for each course completed. About 7,000 students of all ages and from very different walks of life receive degrees from the Open University each year.
POLITICAL SET-UP OF GREAT BRITAINThe United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy; the official head of state is the monarch (at present Elisabeth the Second), whose powers are limited by the constitution.
The UK is also one of the independent members of the Commonwealth, all of whose members recognise the Queen as head of the Commonwealth (the loose association of independent countries which has emerged from the British empire).
The constitution is a set of rules, many of which are customs or "conventions" (unwritten rules) that have come to be accepted through the fact of being observed though they have no defined authority. There are the laws of major constitutional importance, such as Magna C(h)arta, Bill of Rights, Habeas Corpus, the laws deciding the succession of the royal family, the Parliament Act which decided the position of the House of Lords, the acts relating to the franchise the electoral system and the conduct of elections.
Parliament is the supreme legislative body and is the supreme authority in the UK
The executive power consists of:
a) government - Cabinet and other ministers who are responsible for introducing and directing national policy;
b) government departments (ó÷ðåæäåíèÿ) which are responsible for national administration;
c) local authorities, which administer and manage many local services;
d) public corporations (ãîñ. êîðïîðàöèè) are responsible for the operation of particular nationalised industries or, for example, of a social or cultural service.