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To be done in written form).

Ex. 1. "Must", "Have to" ("Have got to") expressing obligation or necessity. "Need" expressing necessity.

A. Study the models:

1. I must go to the grocery, mustn't I? - No, you needn't. Mary will buy tea and sugar on her way home.

2. Peter needn't get up yet, need he? - Yes, he must. It's 7 sharp and he has to go out at half past 7.

3. We have to be at the office at 9, don't we? - No, we don't (we don't have to). The working hours begin at 10.

4. Will he have to stay the night if he goes there as late as that? - No, he won't (he won't have to). There is a night train back.

5. Poor girl. She had to carry that heavy parcel by herself, didn't she? - No, she didn't (she didn't have to). John went to the post-office himself.

B. Give short response to express your disagreement with the idea implied in the question. (Remember must and needn't are opposites). Account for your response. Make use of the suggested words. Follow the models.

1. You don't have to do all the work yourself, do you? - (nobody to help)

2. Must I take an umbrella, do you think? - (to be clearing up).

3. You haven't got to post the letter today, have you? - (or Mary, not to receive it in time)

4. Kitty's got to return the book to the library today, hasn't she? - (I to renew it for her)

5. You didn't have to go out to get your sick list, didn't you? - (to have no telephone at home; no one to call the doctor in)

6. Your boy is weak in mathematics. He'll have to repeat the year, won't he? - (to make him work in summer; to take his exam in September)


Ex. 2. "Must-need" expressing obligation or necessity. "Can" expressing ability, possibility or permission. "Mustn't" expressing prohibition.

A. Study the models:

1. I must fry the fish.- Oh, but you needn't. It can be boiled and served with butter and eggs.

2. You needn't take such an early train, need you? - Oh, but I must. I can be late for work if I don't.

3. Switch on the table lamp. You can't read without it.- Oh, but I can. The print is large enough. You needn't worry.

4. Can we smoke here? I don't think it's prohibited.- Oh, but we mustn't. It's very stuffy in here. We must consider others.

5. I can't go to the concert, I'm afraid.- Oh, but you can. I'll look after the baby. You neednít worry.

B. Protest against the idea expressed in the following sentences using oh, but with a short response. (Remember must and needn't are opposites). Account for your response. Make use of the suggested words. Follow the models.

1. I needn't go tomorrow, need I? - (not to find him in any other day).

2. Bobby must go to bed, mustn't he? - (only 9 o'clock; to play till 10)

3. You are young. You can carry this suit-case.- (to be too heavy for me)

4. We needn't go on foot, need we? - (not to have a breath of air all day).

5. You can't go to bed at 9 o'clock, can you? - (to be dead tired)

6. Do you think I can enter the lecture hall? - (the lecture to begin half an hour ago).


Ex. 3. Modal verbs in requests.

A. Study the models:

1. Can I do anything for you? - Will you show me some black elastic?

2. I've done a lot of shopping today.- Won't you show me your purchases?

3. What can I do for you? - Could I see the room you've got to let?

4. Anybody for more tea? - May I have another cup?

5. Here is a book you need for your course-paper.- Would you let me take it home?

6. Can (could) you tell me the way to the Tower of London? - Can I help you, sir? You seem to be a stranger here?

B. Respond to the following sentences with a request introduced by a suitable modal verb. Make use of the suggested words. Follow the models.

1. See what a pretty hat I've bought - (to let me try it on)

2. Anybody for more fish-jelly? - (to have another helping)

3. You seem to be in some difficulty. Can I do anything to help you? - (to direct me to the nearest metro-station)

4. You must join our library and they'll give you the text-book you want - (to lend me yours till tomorrow

5. Hello, Lucy. Glad to see you. We are going to the theatre.- (not to introduce me to your friend)


Ex. 4. Modal verbs expressing the absence of necessity.

A. Study the models:

1. Must I go shopping tonight, Mother? I have a lot of homework to do.- No, you needn't go anywhere else if you drop in at the bakery on the way home.

2. I suppose Mary was angry when you told her you'd left her book at home.- But why? I didn't have to return it to her today. She didn't expect me to.

3. We know these rules very well. Why do they make us cram them again? - You needn't repeat them if you know them. So much the better.

4. I'd like to go home now, if you'll let me. I have an important matter to see to.- Well, you needn't stay, actually. This consultation is for those who are lagging behind.

B. Give short responses to the following sentences. State that the action in question was (or is) not necessary, using needn't ... or didn't have to ... as required by the meaning. Add another sentence to make the situation clear. Make use of the given words.

1. Wasn't it awful to have missed the last train. I wonder how you managed to reach the hostel before morning.- (to walk all the way; to be lucky to get a taxi)

2. Is there a telephone-booth near here? I must ring up my uncle.- (to go out for it; my neighbours, to have a telephone)

3. I went to Mrs. Nelson's last night, and gave her your message. I took the metro.- (not to go there; can phone)

4. Must I copy my composition? - (to do it; to be legible)

5. I really don't know what to say to your offer. I can't make up my mind at once.- (to give your concent now; to take your time)


Ex. 5. "To Be" expressing arrangement.

A. Study the models:

1. There will be a lecture at the club. Please let all the groups know about it.- All right. When is the lecture to begin?

2. So, we go hiking this weekend. We go by train.- Good. What time are we to meet at the station?

3. Aunt Hellen is coming to stay with us. Are you glad? - Yes, indeed. When are we to meet her?

4. Mary must know how dangerously ill her mother is. Anything may happen, you know. It is simply wrong to keep it from her.- I see. But who is to tell her all this?

B. Respond to the following sentences making up sentences with the modal verb "to be". Make use of the suggested words. Follow the models:

1. Our refridgerator is out of order. I've sent it to the repairs-shop.- (where, to keep food)

2. So, you will sit with my baby. Don't forget she must take the mixture at 12.- (how much, to give her)

3. We are to go to the airport to meet the delegation of English students tomorrow.- We've agreed to get together at the hostel.- (when to arrive)

4. The meeting is to be held on Monday, at 4.- (in what room, to take place)

5. Peter, will you drop in at the library on your way upstairs and fetch some grammar-books for the lesson.- (how many to bring)


Ex. 6. "Should" expressing advisability, mild reproach.

A. Study the models:

1. The soup is cooked. We can sit down to dinner now, can't we? - Yes, I think so. Only you should have a look at the apple-pie first. I'm afraid it might be burnt.

2. Father wants to go for a walk. He is longing for a breath of air.- I know, he is. But he should't go out just jet. He is still a bit feverish.

3. Well, Mother, now the guests are gone, we can begin washing-up, can't we? - No, not yet. The children should be asleep by now. So let's put them to bed.

4. Doesn't the hat suit me? - Yes, rather. But you shouldn't buy it. It doesn't go with your coat.

B. Give affirmative or negative response to the following statements or question. Make up a sentence containing should + Infinitive to express advice referring to the present of future time, or mild reproach for smth. done wrong, or not done at all, in the past. Add another s-s to account for your advice or reproach. Make use of the suggested words. Follow the models:

1. Helen's boy has become awfully disobedient.- (she not to shout at the child, to do more harm than good)

2. Excuse me, is it the right way to the Central Department Store? - (to turn to the left after crossing the bridge)

3. The report is only half-done, and I'm so awfully tired and sleepy.- (to take a cup of tea; to cheer you up)

4. What a lovely fur-coat. I really must buy it. Don't you like it? - (not to buy such expensive things now; to have nothing to live on).

5. Is Kitty still sitting over her books? Isn't she in bed yet? - (you not to allow her to keep late hours; to be bad for health)


Ex.7. "Ought" expressing obligation.

A. Study the models:

1. John and Peter used to be my best friends. But now they seem to avoid me.- How strange. They ought to be ashamed of themselfves. You've always been so kind to them.

2. Let's go for a walk.- It's our washing-day today. I'm afraid Mother will make me help.- For shame. You oughtn't even to wait her to ask you. It's you who ought to do the washing for the family, not she.

3. My room-mate Kitty has fallen ill. It's pneumonia and she needs looking after. But what can I do, when I am so busy? - It is awful. She oughtn't to be left alone for an hour. Let's stay in with her in turn.

B. Respond to the following. Use ought + Infinitive to express obligation, duty, or reproach for failing to fulfill it. Add another sentence to account for your opinion. Make use of the suggested words. Follow the models.

1. Nelly asked me to make a dialogue with her, but I refused, I didn't like to have a weak student for a partner.- (to help her without being asked, so awfully selfish)

2. Betty has seen all the films and all the new plays at the theatre. Now she doesn't seem to know what to do with her evenings.- (to think of her reading, not to read anything yet).

3. Ketty wants to take her exams ahead of time, so as to have a whole month to spend at home.- (not to be allowed to do it, not to be strong enough).

4. Why do you say you disapprove of my manner of speaking to the dean? You are just fond of finding fault with people. I will always say what I think. - (to show more respect for your elders, to be too self-confident for your age).

5. Our teacher has fallen ill. Let's hope no one will come to substitute her. What about going to the pictures instead of making our newspaper reports? - (to suggest such a thing; not to be schoolchildren).

Date: 2015-12-11; view: 521

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