Subject to the provisions of the preceding section as to circumstances which need not be disclosed, where an insurance is effected for the assured by an agent, the agent must disclose to the insurer--
(a) Every material circumstance which is known to himself, and an agent to insure is deemed to know every circumstance which in the ordinary course of business ought to be known by, or to have been communicated to, him; and
(b) Every material circumstance which the assured is bound to disclose, unless it come to his knowledge too late to communicate it to the agent.
Representations pending negotiation of contract
(1) Every material representation made by the assured or his agent to the insurer during the negotiations for the contract, and before the contract is concluded, must be true. If it be untrue the insurer may avoid the contract.
(2) A representation is material which would influence the judgment of a prudent insurer in fixing the premium, or determining whether he will take the risk.
(3) A representation may be either a representation as to a matter of fact, or as to a matter of expectation or belief.
(4) A representation as to a matter of fact is true, if it be substantially correct, that is to say, if the difference between what is represented and what is actually correct would not be considered material by a prudent insurer.
(5) A representation as to a matter of expectation or belief is true if it be made in good faith.
(6) A representation may be withdrawn or corrected before the contract is concluded.
(7) Whether a particular representation be material or not is, in each case, a question of fact.
When contract is deemed to be concluded
A contract of marine insurance is deemed to be concluded when the proposal of the assured is accepted by the insurer, whether the policy be then issued or not; and, for the purpose of showing when the proposal was accepted, reference may be made to the slip or covering note or other customary memorandum of the contract.
Contract must be embodied in policy
Subject to the provisions of any statute, a contract of marine insurance is inadmissible in evidence unless it is embodied in a marine policy in accordance with this Act. The policy may be executed and issued either at the time when the contract is concluded, or afterwards.
What policy must specify
A marine policy must specify -
(1) The name of the assured, or of some person who effects the insurance on his behalf:
Signature of insurer
(1) A marine policy must be signed by or on behalf of the insurer, provided that in the case of a corporation the corporate seal may be sufficient, but nothing in this section shall be construed as requiring the subscription of a corporation to be under seal.
(2) Where a policy is subscribed by or on behalf of two or more insurers, each subscription, unless the contrary be expressed, constitutes a distinct contract with the assured.