Paraphrasing is an important academic writing skill. Paraphrasing is used to express the same ideas or information as the original text but with different vocabulary and grammar structures. Paraphrasing is frequently used to include information from other sources in research papers, along with the correct attribution of the original source material. A good paraphrase
• uses different grammar structures,
• uses synonyms and expressions with similar meanings,
• is approximately the same length as the original,
• includes the same ideas as the original, AND
• includes correct documentation of the source (author, title, journal/book, date, etc.) if the source is published material.
(Documentation is not included in the following because these examples do not have a specific source.)
• Although the artist encountered many difficulties in his life, he became extremely well known and successful.
• The painter was a popular success despite experiencing many problems during his lifetime.
• The artist had many problems during his lifetime; nonetheless, he experienced considerable recognition and success.
• Despite the fact that he had experienced many hardships, the artist had a successful and distinguished career.
• The painter achieved fame and success, his many problems notwithstanding.
• The persistent errors made by the accountantcaused the business to fail. Possible paraphrases:
• The accountant always made so many mistakesthat eventually the company had to close down.
• The failure of the company was zr.t :; r__tc_tr.ee of the accountant's repeated miscalculations.
• As a result of the long-standing ;~:; — Z'tztr. ;_- of the accountant the firm went bankrupt.
• The bankruptcy of the company was dueh> the repeated mistakes of the accountant.
A. Read each sentence and choose rbt ZMrz^irisc that most closely matches its meaning. Then state the reasons for your choice.
1. Test anxiety can cause nervousn
a. Test anxiety may cause
b. Feelings of nervousness.
c. Students who are nerv: m
iss, and an inability to concentrate. : memory, and lack of concentration. i loss of ability to study are all signs of exam stress.
-:.- _- ice more loss of memory.
2. Many college professors gi : : r^rative-learning assignments that encourage them to
■ ^.signing group projects. - together experience greater benefits. v professors reinforce cooperative ways of learning
work together as a team.
a. Professors try to encourage
b. According to professes
c. Team building proie~i among students.
B. Paraphrase the following -. - :-_-_: vocabulary and grammar structures wherever
1. Students who live o£f-cs__r_r their roommates and -ir "_
fiireriences if they have realistic expectations of
Essential Academic Vocabulary
2. Many people immigrate to the United States to find better jobs, higher salaries, and more opportunities for their families.
3. Currently, major corporations manufacture and market their products all over the world.
4. Diamond engagement rings are advertised to consumers as symbols of wealth and love.
5. Studies have shown that people in all cultures show similar facial expressions in response to specific emotions.