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UNIT 28. Must and can't 7 page

* It was a waste of time reading that book. It was rubbish.

* It's a waste of money buying things you don't need.

spend/waste (time) ...

* He spent hours trying to repair the clock.

* I waste a lot of time daydreaming.

(be) busy ...:

* She said she couldn't see me. She was too busy doing other things.

D. Go swimming/go fishing etc.

We use go ~ing for a number of activities (especially sports). For example, you can say:

go swimming/go sailing/go fishing/go climbing/go skiing/go jogging etc.

also: go shopping/go sightseeing.

* I'd like to go skiing.

* When did you last go shopping?

* I've never been sailing. (For been and gone, see Unit 7D.)

You can also say 'come swimming/come skiing' etc.:

* Why don't you come swimming with us?



62.1 Complete the sentences on the right.

1. Shall we get a taxi home?

No, it isn't far. It's not worth _getting a taxi._

2. If you need help, why don't you ask Tom?

It's no use ---. He won't be able to help us.

3. I don't really want to go out tonight.

Well, stay at home! There's no point --- if you don't want to.

4. Shall I phone Ann now?

No, it's no good ---. She won't be at home.

5. Are you going to complain about what happened?

No, it's not worth ---. Nobody will do anything about it.

6. Do you ever read newspapers?

No. I think it's a waste ---

62.2 Make sentences with worth ~ing or not worth ~ing. Choose one of these verbs:

consider keep read repair see visit

1. The film isn't very good. _It's not worth seeing._

2. It would cost too much to repair this watch. It's not worth ---

3. If you have time, you should go to the museum. It's worth ---

4. It's quite an interesting suggestion ---

5. There's an interesting article in the paper today. ---

6. We can throw these old clothes away. They ---

62.3 Make sentences beginning There's no point... .

1. Why have a car if you never use it? There's no point in having a car if you never use it.

2. Don't eat if you're not hungry.

There's no ---

3. Why work if you don't need money?

4. Don't study if you feet tired.

62.4 Write sentences using difficulty.

1. I managed to get a visa but it was difficult.

_I had difficulty getting a visa._

2. I can't remember people's names.

I have difficulty ---

3. Lucy managed to get a job without difficulty.

She had no ---

4. Do you find it difficult to understand him?

Do you have ---

5. It won't be difficult to get a ticket for the concert.

You won't have any ---

62.5 Complete the sentences. Use only one word each time.

1. It's a waste of money buying things you don't need.

2. Every morning I spend about an hour --- the newspaper.

3. 'What's Carol doing?' 'She's busy --- letters.'

4. I think you waste too much time --- television.

5. There's a beautiful view from that hill. It is worth --- to the top.

62.6 Complete these sentences with one of the following (with the verb in the correct form):

go skiing go shopping go swimming go sailing go riding

1. Barry lives by the sea and he's got a boat, so he often _goes sailing._

2. There's plenty of snow in the mountains so we'll be able to ---

3. It was a very hot day, so we --- in the river.

4. Margaret has got two horses. She often ---

5. The shops are shut now. It's too late to ---


UNIT 63. To ..., for ... and so that ... (purpose)

A. We use to ... to say why somebody does something (= the purpose of an action):

* 'Why did you go out?' 'To post a letter.'

* A friend of mine phoned to invite me to a party.

* We shouted to warn everybody of the danger.

We use to... to say why something exists or why somebody has/wants/needs something:

* This wall is to keep people out of the garden.

* The President has a team of bodyguards to protect him.

* I need a bottle opener to open this bottle.

B. We use to ... to say what can be done or must be done with something:

* It's difficult to find a place to park in the city centre. (= a place where you can park)

* Would you like something to eat?

* Have you got much work to do? (= work that you must do)

* I get lonely if there's nobody to talk to.

Also: money/time/chance/opportunity/energy/courage etc. to (do something):

* They gave us some money to buy some food.

* Do you have much opportunity to practise your English?

* I need a few days to think about your proposal.

C. For ... and to ...


* I'm going to Spain for a holiday.

but I'm going to Spain to learn Spanish. (not 'for learn Spanish', not 'for learning Spanish')

We use for + noun (for a holiday) but to + verb (to learn). Some more examples:

* What would you like for dinner?

but What would you like to eat? (not 'for eat')

* Let's go to the pool for a swim.

but Let's go to the pool to have a swim.

Note that you can say ... for (somebody) to (do something):

* There weren't any chairs for us to sit on, so we had to sit on the floor.

You can use for ~ing to say what the general purpose of a thing is. To... is also possible:

* This knife is only for cutting bread. (or ... to cut bread.)

You can use What ... for? to ask about purpose:

* What is this switch for?

* What did you do that for?

D. So that

Sometimes you have to use so that for purpose. We use so that (not to ...):

i) when the purpose is negative (so that ... won't/wouldn't):

* I hurried so that I wouldn't be late. (= because I didn't want to be late)

* Leave early so that you won't (or don't) miss the bus.

ii) with can and could (so that ... can/could)

* She's learning English so that she can study in Canada.

* We moved to London so that we could visit our friends more often.

iii) when one person does something so that another person does something else:

* I gave her my address so that she could contact me.

* He wore glasses and a false beard so that nobody would recognize him.



63.1 Use a sentence from Box A and a sentence from Box B to make a new sentence.


1. I shouted

2. I had to go to the bank

3. I'm saving money

4. I went into hospital

5. I'm wearing two pullovers

6. I phoned the police station


I want to keep warm

I wanted to report that my car had been stolen

I want to go to Canada

I had to have an operation

I needed to get some money

I wanted to warn people of danger

1. _I shouted to warn people of the danger._

2. I had to go to the bank ---

3. I ---

4. ---

5. ---

6. ---

63.2 Complete these sentences using a suitable verb.

1. The President has a team of bodyguards _to protect_ him.

2. I didn't have enough time --- the newspaper today.

3. I came home by taxi. I didn't have the energy ---

4. 'Would you like something ---?' 'Yes, please. A cup of coffee.'

5. We need a bag --- these things in.

6. There will be a meeting next week --- the problem.

7. I wish we had enough money --- a new car.

8. I saw Helen at the party but we didn't have a chance --- to each other.

9. I need some new clothes. I haven't got anything nice ---

10. They've just passed their exams. They're having a party ---

11. I can't do all this work alone. I need somebody --- me.

63.3 Put in to or for.

1. I'm going to Spain _for_ a holiday.

2. You need a lot of experience --- this job.

3. You need a lot of experience --- do this job.

4. We'll need more time --- make a decision.

5. I went to the dentist --- a check-up.

6. I had to put on my glasses --- read the letter.

7. Do you wear glasses --- reading?

8. I wish we had a garden --- the children --- play in.

63.4 Write sentences with so that.

1. I hurried. I didn't want to be late.

_I hurried so that I wouldn't be late._

2. We wore warm clothes. We didn't want to get cold.

We wore ---

3. The man spoke very slowly. He wanted me to understand what he said.

The man ---

4. I whispered. I didn't want anybody else to here our conversation.

--- nobody ---

5. Please arrive early. We want to be able to start the meeting on time.

Please ---

6. She locked the door. She didn't want to be disturbed.


7. I slowed down. I wanted the car behind to be able to overtake.



UNIT 64. Adjective + to ...

A. Difficult to understand etc.

Compare sentences a and b:

* Jim doesn't speak very clearly. It is difficult to understand him. (a)

* Jim doesn't speak very clearly. He is difficult to understand. (b)

Sentences a and b have the same meaning. But note that we say:

* He is difficult to understand. (not 'He is difficult to understand him.')

You can use the structures in the box with:

difficult easy hard impossible dangerous safe expensive cheap and a number of other adjectives (for example, nice/interesting/exciting):

* Do you think it is safe to drink this water?

Do you think this water is safe to drink? (not 'to drink it')

* Your writing is awful. It is impossible to read it. (= to read your writing)

Your writing is impossible to read. (not 'to read it')

* I like being with Jill. It's very interesting to talk to her.

Jill is very interesting to talk to. (not 'to talk to her')

You can also use this structure with an adjective + noun:

* This is a difficult question (for me) to answer. (not 'to answer it')

B. (It's) nice (of you) to...

You can use this structure to say what you think of what somebody does:

* It was nice of you to take me to the station. Thank you very much.

You can use many other adjectives in this way. For example:

kind clever sensible mean silly stupid careless unfairV considerate:

* It's silly of Mary to give up her job when she needs the money.

* I think it was very unfair of him to criticise me.

C. (I'm) sorry to ...

You can use this structure to say how somebody reacts to something:

* I was sorry to hear that your father is ill.

You can use many other adjectives in this way. For example:

happy glad pleased delighted sad disappointed surprised amazed astonished relieved:

* Was Tom surprised to see you when you went to see him?

* We were delighted to get your letter last week.

D. The first (person) to know, the next train to arrive

We use to ... after the first/second/third etc. and also after the next, the last, the only:

* If I have any more news, you will be the first (person) to know.

* The next train to arrive at platform 4 will be the 6.50 to Cardiff.

* Everybody was late except me. I was the only one to arrive on time.

E. You can say that something is sure/certain/bound/likely to happen:

* She's very intelligent. She's sure/certain/bound to pass the exam.

* I'm likely to be late home this evening. (= I will probably be late home)



64.1 (Section A) Write these sentences in another way, beginning as shown.

1. It's difficult to understand him.

He _is difficult to understand._

2. It's quite easy to use this machine.

This machine is ---

3. It was very difficult to open the window.

The window ---

4. It's impossible to translate some words.

Some words ---

5. It's not safe to stand on that chair.

That chair ---

6. It's expensive to maintain a car.

A ---

64.2 (Section A) Complete the second sentence using the adjective in brackets. Use a/an +adjective + noun + to ... (as in the example).

1. I couldn't answer the question. (difficult) It was _a difficult question to answer._

2. Everybody makes that mistake. (easy)

It's an ---

3. I like living in this place. (nice)

It's a ---

4. We enjoyed watching the game. (good)

It was ---

64.3 (Section B) Make a new sentence beginning It ... Use one of these adjectives each time:

careless considerate kind nice

1. You did my shopping for me.

_It was kind of you to do my shopping for me._

2. You make the same mistake again and again.

It ---

3. Don and jenny invited me to stay with them.


4. John made so much noise when I was trying to sleep.

It wasn't very ---

64.4 (Section C) Use the following words to complete these sentences:

sorry/hear glad/hear delighted/get surprised/see

1. We _were delighted to get_ your letter last week.

2.Thank you for your letter. I --- that you're keeping well.

3. We --- Pauline at the party. We didn't expect her to come.

4. I --- that your mother isn't well. I hope she gets well soon.

64.5 (Section D) Complete the second sentence using the words in brackets + to ...

1. Nobody left before me. (the first)

I was _the first person to leave._

2. Everybody else arrived before Paul. (the last)

Paul was the ---

3. Fiona passed the exam. All the other students failed. (the only)

Fiona was ---

4. I complained to the restaurant manager about the service. Another customer had already complained before me. (the second)

I was ---

5. Nell Armstrong walked on the moon in 1969. Nobody had done this before him. (the first)

Neil Armstrong was ---

64.6 (Section E) Complete these sentences using the word in brackets and a suitable verb.

1. Diane is very intelligent. She _is bound to pass_ the exam. (bound)

2. I'm not surprised you're tired. After such a long journey you --- tired. (bound)

3. Tom's got a very bad memory. He --- what you told him. (sure)

4. I don't think you need to take an umbrella. It --- (not likely)

5. The holidays begin this weekend. There --- a lot of traffic on the roads. (likely)


UNIT 65. To ... (afraid to do) and preposition + ~ing (afraid of ~ing)

A. Afraid to (do) and afraid of (do)ing

I am afraid to do something = I don't want to do it because it is dangerous or the result could be bad. We use afraid to do for things we do intentionally:

* A lot of people are afraid to go out at night. (= they don't want to go out because it is dangerous--so they don't go out)

* He was afraid to tell his parents about the broken window. (= he didn't want to tell them because he knew they would be angry)

I am afraid of something happening = it is possible that something bad will happen (for example, an accident). We do not use afraid of ~ing for things we do intentionally:

* The path was icy, so we walked very carefully. We were afraid of falling. (= it was possible that we would fall--not 'we were afraid to fall')

* I don't like dogs. I'm always afraid of being bitten. (not 'afraid to be bitten')

So, you are afraid to do something because you are afraid of something happening as a result:

* I was afraid to go near the dog because I was afraid of being bitten.

B. Interested in (do)ing and interested to (do)

I'm interested in doing something = I'm thinking of doing it, I'd like to do it:

* I'm trying to sell my car but nobody is interested in buying it. (not 'to buy')

We use interested to especially with hear/see/know/read/learn. I was interested to hear it = 'I heard it and it was interesting for me':

* I was interested to hear that Diane has got a new job.

* Ask George for his opinion. I would be interested to know what he thinks. (=it would be interesting for me to know)

This structure is the same as surprised to/delighted to... etc. (see Unit 64C):

* I was surprised to hear that Diane has got a new job.

C. Sorry to (do) and sorry for (do)ing

We usually say sorry to... to apologize when (or just before) we do something:

* I'm sorry to bother you, but I need to talk to you.

We use sorry to (hear/read etc.) to show sympathy with somebody (see Unit 64C):

* I was sorry to hear that Fiona lost her job. (= I was sorry when I heard ...)

You can use sorry for (doing something) to apologize for something you did before:

* (I'm) sorry for shouting at you yesterday. (not 'Sorry to shout ...')

You can also say:

* (I'm) sorry I shouted at you yesterday.

D. Note that we say:

I want to (do)/I'd like to (do) but I'm thinking of (do)ing/I dream of (do)ing

I failed to (do) but I succeeded in (do)ing

I allowed them to (do) but I prevented them from (do)ing

For examples, see Units 53-54 and 61.



65.1 Read the situation and use the words in brackets to write a sentence with afraid.

1. The streets are unsafe at night.

(a lot of people/afraid/go/out) _A lot of people are afraid to go out._

2. We walked very carefully along the icy path.

(we/afraid/fall) _We were afraid of falling._

3. I don't usually carry my passport with me.


4. The sea was very rough.


5. We rushed to the station.

(we/afraid/miss/our train)

6. In the middle of the film there was a particularly horrifying scene.


7. The glasses were very full, so Jane carried them very carefully.

(she/afraid/spill/the drinks)

8. I didn't like the look of the food on my plate.

a (I/afraid/eat/it)

b (I/afraid/make/myself ill)

65.2 Complete the sentences using one of these verbs:

buy get go hear read start

1. I'm trying to sell my car but nobody is interested _in buying_ it.

2. Julia is interested --- her own business.

3. I was interested --- your letter in the newspaper last week.

4. Bill wants to stay single. He's not interested --- married.

5. You must tell me what you think. I'm always interested --- your opinion.

6. There's a party tonight but I'm not interested ---

65.3 Complete the sentences using the verb in brackets.

1. I'm sorry _for shouting_ at you yesterday. (shout)

2. Sorry --- you but have you got a pen I could borrow? (disturb)

3. Sorry --- late last night. I didn't realize the time. (be)

4. I'm sorry --- what I said yesterday. I didn't really mean it. (say)

5. 'I've just had my exam results. I failed.' 'Oh? I'm sorry --- that.' (hear)

65.4 Complete the sentences using the verb in brackets.

1. a. We wanted _to leave_ the building. (leave)

b. We weren't allowed --- the building. (leave)

c. We were prevented --- the building. (leave)

2. a. Fred failed --- the problem. (solve)

b. Amy succeeded --- the problem. (solve)

3. a. I'm thinking --- away next week. (go)

b. I'm hoping --- away next week. (go)

c. I'm looking forward --- away next week. (go)

d. I'd like --- away next week. (go)

4. a. Mary wanted --- me a drink. (buy)

b. Mary promised --- me a drink. (buy)

c. Mary insisted --- me a drink. (buy)

d. Mary wouldn't dream --- me a drink. (buy)


UNIT 66. See somebody do and see somebody doing

A. Study this example situation:

Tom got into his car and drove away. You saw this. You can say:

* I saw Tom get into his car and drive away.

In this structure we use get/drive/do etc. (infinitive without 'to'):

Somebody did something + I saw this = I saw somebody do something.

Note that we use the infinitive without to:

* We saw them go out. (not 'to go')

But after a passive ('they were seen') etc., we use to:

* They were seen to go out.

B. Study this example situation:

Yesterday you saw Ann. She was waiting for a bus. You can say:

* I saw Ann waiting for a bus.

In this structure we use ~ing (waiting):

Somebody was doing something + I saw this = I saw somebody doing something.

C. Study the difference in meaning between the two structures:

'I saw him do something' = he did something (past simple) and I saw this. I saw the complete action from beginning to end:

* He fell off the wall. I saw this. -> I saw him fall off the wall.

* The accident happened. Did you see this? -> Did you see the accident happen?

'I saw him doing something' = he was doing something (past continuous) and I saw this. I saw him when he was in the middle of doing it. This does not mean that I saw the complete action:

* He was walking along the street. + I saw this when I drove past in my car. = I saw him walking along the street.

Sometimes the difference is not important and you can use either form:

* I've never seen her dance. or I've never seen her dancing.

D. We use these structures with see and hear, and a number of other verbs:

* I didn't hear you come in.

* Liz suddenly felt something touch her on the shoulder.

* Did you notice anyone go out?

* I could hear it raining.

* The missing boys were last seen playing near the river.

* Listen to the birds singing!

* Can you smell something burning?

* I found Sue in my room reading my letters.



66.1 Complete the answers to the questions.

1. Did anybody go out?

I don't know. I didn't see _anybody go out._

2. Has Jill arrived yet?

Yes, I think I heard her ---

3. How do you know I took the money?

I know because I saw you ---

4. Did the doorbell ring?

I'm not sure. I didn't hear ---

5. Can Tom play the piano?

I've never heard ---

6. Did I lock the door when I went out?

Yes, you did. I saw ---

7. How did the woman fall in the river?

I don't know. I didn't see ---

66.2 In each of these situations you and a friend saw, heard or smelt something. Look at the pictures and complete the sentences.

1. Look! There's Ann.

2. Look! There's Dave and Helen.

3. Look! There's Clare.

4. Listen That's Bill.

5. Can you smell burning? Yes! It's the dinner.

6. Look! There's Linda.

1. _We saw Ann waiting for a bus._

2. We saw Dave and Helen ---

3. We saw --- in a restaurant.

4. We heard ---

5. We could ---

6. ---

66.3 Complete these sentences. Use one of these verbs (in the correct form):

climb come crawl cry cycle explode happen open run say slam sleep tell

.1 Listen to the birds _singing._

2. I didn't hear you _come_ in.

3. Did anybody see the accident ---?

4. We listened to the old man --- his story from beginning to end.

5. Listen! Can you hear a baby ---?

6. I looked out of the window and saw Tim on his bike ---. along the road.

7. 'Why did you turn round suddenly?' 'I thought I heard somebody --- my name.'

8. We watched the two men --- across the garden --- a window and --- through it into the house.

9. Everybody heard the bomb ---. It was a tremendous noise.

10. Oh! I can feel something --- up my leg! It must be an insect.

11. I heard somebody --- the door in the middle of the night. It woke me up.

12. When we got home, we found a cat --- on the kitchen table.


UNIT 67. ~ing clauses (Feeling tired, I went to bed early.)

A. A clause is a part of a sentence. Some sentences have two or more clauses:

* Jim hurt his arm (main clause) playing tennis.(~ing clause)

* Feeling tired,(~ing clause) I went to bed early.(main clause)

'Playing tennis' and 'feeling tired' are ~ing clauses.

If the ~ing clause is first (as in the second example), we write a comma (,) between the clauses.

B. When two things happen at the same time, you can use ~ing for one of the verbs. The main clause usually comes first:

* I've just seen Carol. She's in the bar having a drink. (= she is in the bar and she is having a drink)

* A man ran out of the house shouting. (= he ran out of the house and he was shouting)

* Do something! Don't just stand there doing nothing!

We also use ~ing when one action happens during another action. We use ~ing for the longer action. The longer action is the second part of the sentence:

* Jim hurt his arm playing tennis. (= while he was playing)

* Did you cut yourself shaving? (= while you were shaving)

You can also use ~ing after while or when:

* Jim hurt his arm while playing tennis.

* Be careful when crossing the road. (= when you are crossing)

C. When one action happens before another action, we use having (done) for the first action:

* Having found a hotel, we looked for somewhere to have dinner.

* Having finished her work, she went home.

You can also say after ~ing:

* After finishing her work, she went home.

If one short action follows another short action, you can use the simple ~ing form (doing instead of having done) for the first action:

* Taking a key out of his pocket, he opened the door.

These structures are used more in written English than in spoken English.

D. You can use an ~ing clause to explain something or to say why somebody does something. The~ing clause usually comes first:

* Feeling tired, I went to bed early. (= because I felt tired)

* Being unemployed, he hasn't got much money. (= because he is unemployed)

* Not having a car, she finds it difficult to get around. (= because she doesn't have a car)

* Having already seen the film twice, I didn't want to go to the cinema. (= because I had already seen it twice)

These structures are used more in written English than in spoken English.



67.1 Join a sentence from Box A with one from Box B to make one sentence. Use an ~ing clause.


1. Carol was in the bar

2. Emma was sitting in an armchair.

3. Sue got home late.

4. Sarah went out.

5. Linda was in London for two years.

6. Mary walked round the town.


She was feeling very tired.

She looked at the sights and took


She said she would be back in an hour.

She was reading a book.

She Was having a drink.

She worked as a tourist guide.

1. _Carol was in the bar having a drink._

2. Emma was sitting ---

3. Sue ---

4 ---

5. ---

6. ---

67.2 Make one sentence from two using an ~ing clause.

1. Jim was playing tennis. He hurt his arm. _Jim hurt; his arm playing tennis._

2. I was watching television. I fell asleep. I ---

3. The man slipped. He was getting off a bus. The man ---

4. I was walking home in the rain. I got wet. I ---

5. Margaret was driving to work yesterday. She had an accident. ---

6. Two firemen were overcome by smoke. They were trying to put out the fire. ---

67.3 Make sentences beginning Having ...

1. She finished her work. Then she went home.

_Having finished her work, she went home._

2. We bought our tickets. Then we went into the theatre.

3. They continued their Journey after they'd had dinner.

4. After Lucy had done all her shopping, she went for a cup of coffee.

67.4 Make sentences beginning ~ing or Not ~ing (like those in Section D). Sometimes you need to begin with Having (done something).

1. I felt tired. So I went to bed early.

_Feeling tired I went to bad early._

2. I thought they might be hungry. So I offered them something to eat.

3. She is a foreigner. So she needs a visa to stay in this country.

4. I didn't know his address. So I wasn't able to contact him.

5. Sarah has travelled a lot. So she knows a lot about other countries.

6. The man wasn't able to understand English. So he didn't know what I wanted.

7. We had spent nearly all our money. So we couldn't afford to stay in a hotel.


UNIT 68. Countable and uncountable nouns (1)

A. A noun can be countable or uncountable. Compare:

#1 Countable

* I eat a banana every day.

* I like bananas.

Banana is a countable noun.

A countable noun can be singular (banana)or plural (bananas).

Countable nouns are things we can count. So we can say 'one banana', 'two bananas' etc.

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