UNIT 28. Must and can't 5 page
A. Study these examples:
You haven't seen Mary today, have you?
No, I'm afraid not.
It was a good film, wasn't it?
Yes. I really enjoyed it.
Have you? and wasn't it? are question tags (= mini-questions that we often put on the end of a sentence in spoken English). In question tags, we use an auxiliary verb (have/was/will etc.).
We use do/does/did for the present and past simple (see also Unit 50):
* 'Karen plays the piano, doesn't she?' 'Well, yes, but not very well.'
* 'You didn't lock the door, did you?' 'No, I forgot.'
B. Normally we use a negative question tag after a positive sentence:
positive sentence + negative tag
Mary will be here soon, won't she?
There was a lot of traffic, wasn't there?
Jim should pass the exam, shouldn't he?
... and a positive question tag after a negative sentence:
negative sentence + positive tag
Mary won't be late, will she?
They don't like us, do they?
You haven't got a car, have you?
Notice the meaning of yes and no in answer to a negative sentence:
* You're not going out today, are you? Yes. (Yes, I am going out)
* You're not going out today, are you? No. (No, I am not going out)
C. The meaning of a question tag depends on how you say it. If your voice goes down, you aren't really asking a question; you are only inviting the listener to agree with you:
* 'It's a nice day, isn't it?' 'Yes, lovely.'
* 'Tim doesn't look well today, dose he? 'No, he looks very tired.'
* She's very pretty. She's got beautiful eyes, hasn't she?
But if the voice goes up, it is a real question:
* 'You haven't seen Mary today, have you?' 'No, I'm afraid not.'
(= Have you seen Mary today by any chance?)
We often use a negative sentence + positive tag to ask for things or information, or to ask somebody to do something. The voice goes up at the end of the tag in sentences like these:
* 'You haven't got a pen, have you?' 'Yes, here you are.'
* 'You couldn't do me a favour, could you?' 'It depends what it is.'
* 'You don't know where Karen is, do you?'Sorry, I've no idea.'
D. After Let's... the question tag is ... shall we?:
Let's go for a walk, shall we?
After the imperative (Do.../Don't do... etc.), the tag is usually ... will you?:
Open the door, will you?
Don't be late, will you?
Note that we say ... aren't I? (= am I not?):
I'm late, aren't I?
51.1 Put a question tag on the end of these sentences.
1. Tom won't be late, will her? No, he's never late.
2. You're tired, aren't you? Yes, a little.
3. You've got a camera, ---? Yes, why? Do you want to borrow it?
4. You weren't listening, ---? Yes, I was!
5. Sue doesn't know Ann, ---? No, they've never met.
6. Jack's on holiday, ---? Yes, he's in Portugal.
7. Ann's applied for the job, ---? Yes, but she won't get it.
8. You can speak German, ---? Yes, but not very fluently.
9. He won't mind if I use his phone, ---? No, of course he won't.
10. There are a lot of people here, ---? Yes, more than I expected.
11. Let's go out tonight, ---? Yes, let's.
12. This isn't very interesting, ---? No, not very.
13. I'm too impatient, ---? Yes, you are sometimes.
14. You wouldn't tell anyone ---?No, of course not.
15. Listen, ---? OK, I'm listening.
16. I shouldn't have lost my temper, ---? No, but never mind.
17. Don't drop that vase, ---? No, don't worry.
18. He'd never met her before, ---?, No, that was the first time.
51.2 Read the situation and write a sentence with a question tag. In each situation you are asking your friend to agree with you.
1. You look out of the window. The sky is blue and the sun is shining. What do you say to your friend? (beautiful day)
_It's a beautiful day, isn't_
2. You're with a friend outside a restaurant. You're looking at the prices, which are very high. What do you say? (expensive)
3. You've just come out of the cinema with a friend'. You really enjoyed the film. What do you say to your friend? (great)
The film ---
4. You and a friend are listening to a woman singing. You like her voice very much. What do you say to your friend? (a lovely voice)
5. You are trying on a jacket. You look in the mirror and you don't like what you see. What do you say to your friend? (not/took/very good)
6. Your friend's hair is much shorter than when you last met. What do you say to her/him? (have/your hair/cut)
7. You and a friend are walking over a wooden bridge. It is very old and some parts are broken. What do you say? (not/very safe)
This bridge ---
51.3 In these situations you are asking for information and asking people to do things. Make sentences like those in Section C.
1. You need a pen. Perhaps Jane has got one. Ask her.
Jane, you haven't got a pen. have you?
2. Jack is just going out. You want him to get you some stamps. Ask him.
Jack, you ---
3. You're looking for Ann. Perhaps Kate knows where she is. Ask her.
Kate, you ---
4. You need a bicycle pump. Perhaps Helen has got one. Ask her.
5. You're looking for your keys. Perhaps Robin has seen them. Ask him.
Verb + ~ing (enjoy doing/stop doing etc.)
A. Look at these examples:
* I enjoy dancing. (not 'I enjoy to dance')
* Would you mind closing the door? (not 'mind to close')
* Ian suggested going to the cinema. (not 'suggested to go')
After enjoy, mind and suggest, we use ~ing (not to ...).
Here are some more verbs that are followed by ~ing:
stop delay fancy consider admit miss involve finish postpone imagine avoid deny risk practise
* Suddenly everybody stopped talking. There was silence.
* I'll do the shopping when I've finished cleaning the flat.
* He tried to avoid answering my question.
* I don't fancy going out this evening.
* Have you ever considered going to live in another country?
Note the negative form not ~ing:
* When I'm on holiday, I enjoy not having to get up early.
B. We also use ~ing after:
give up (= stop)
put off (= postpone)
carry on/go on (= continue)
keep or keep on (= do something continuously or repeatedly)
* Paula has given up smoking.
* We must do something. We can't go on living like this! (or ... carry on living ...)
* Don't keep interrupting me while I'm speaking. (or Don't keep on interrupting ...)
C. With some verbs you can use the structure verb + somebody + ~ing-
* I can't imagine George riding a motorbike.
* You can't stop me doing what I want.
* 'Sorry to keep you waiting so long.' 'That's all right.'
Note the passive form (being done/seen/kept etc.):
* I don't mind being kept waiting. (= I don't mind people keeping me ...)
D. When you are talking about finished actions, you can say having done/stolen/said etc.:
* She admitted having stolen the money.
But it is not necessary to use having (done). You can also use the simple ~ing form for finished actions:
* She admitted stealing the money.
* I now regret saying (or having said) what I said.
For regret, see Unit 55B.
E. After some of the verbs on this page (especially admit/deny/suggest) you can use that ...
* She denied that she had stolen the money. (or She denied stealing ...)
* Ian suggested that we went to the cinema. (or Ian suggested going ...)
For suggest, see also Unit 34.
52.1 Complete each sentence with one of these verbs:
answer apply be be listen make see try use wash work write
1. He tried to avoid _answering_ my question.
2. Could you please stop --- so much noise?
3. I enjoy --- to music.
4. I considered --- for the job but in the end I decided against it.
5. Have you finished --- your hair yet?
6. If you walk into the road without looking, you risk --- knocked down.
7. Jim is 65 but he isn't going to retire yet. He wants to carry on ---.
8. I don't mind you --- the phone as long as you pay for all your calls.
9. Hello! Fancy --- you here! What a surprise!
10. I've put off --- the letter so many times. I really must do it today.
11. What a stupid thing to do! Can you imagine anybody --- so stupid?
12. Sarah gave up ---to find a job in this country and decided to go abroad.
52,2 Complete the sentences for each situation using ~ing.
1. What shall we do? We could go to the cinema.
She suggested going to the cinema.
2. Do you want to play tennis? No, not really.
He didn't fancy ---
3. You were driving too fast. Yes, it's true. Sorry!
She admitted ---
4. Why don't we go for a swim? Good idea!
She suggested ---
5. You broke into the shop. No, I didn't!
He denied ---
6. Can you wait a few minutes?. Sure, no problem.
They didn't mind ---
52.3 Complete the sentences so that they mean the same as the first sentence. Use ~ing.
1. I can do what I want and you can't stop me.
You can't stop me doing what I want.
2. It's not a good idea to travel during the rush hour.
It's better to avoid ---
3. Shall we go away tomorrow instead of today?
Shall we postpone --- until ---?
4. The driver of the car said it was true that he didn't have a licence.
The driver of the car admitted ---
5. Could you turn the radio down, please?
Would you mind ---?
6. Please don't interrupt me all the time.
Would you mind?
52.4 Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. Use ~ing.
1. She's a very interesting person. I always enjoy _talking to her._
2. I'm not feeling very well. I don't fancy ---
3. I'm afraid there aren't any chairs. I hope you don't mind ---
4. It was a lovely day, so I suggested ---
5. It was very funny. I couldn't stop ---
6. My car isn't very reliable. It keeps ---
UNIT 53. Verb + to... (decide to do/forget to do etc.)
A. offer decide hope deserve attempt promise agree plan aim afford manage threaten refuse arrange learn forget fail
If these verbs are followed by another verb, the structure is usually verb + to ... (infinitive):
* It was late, so we decided to take a taxi home.
* Simon was in a difficult situation, so I agreed to lend him some money.
* How old were you when you learnt to drive? (or 'learnt how to drive')
* I waved to Karen but failed to attract her attention.
Note these examples with the negative not to ...:
* We decided not to go out because of the weather.
* I promised not to be late.
With many verbs you cannot normally use to... . For example, enjoy/think/suggest:
* I enjoy dancing. (not 'enjoy to dance')
* Ian suggested going to the cinema. (not 'suggested to go')
* Are you thinking of buying a car? (not 'thinking to buy')
For verb + ~ing, see Unit 52. For verb + preposition + ~ing, see Unit 61.
B. We also use to... after: seem appear tend pretend claim. For example:
* They seem to have plenty of money,
* I like George but I think he tends to talk too much.
* Ann pretended not to see me as she passed me in the street.
There is also a continuous infinitive (to be doing) and a perfect infinitive (to have done):
* I pretended to be reading the newspaper. (= I pretended that I was reading)
* You seem to have lost weight. (= it seems that you have lost weight)
C. We say 'decide to do something', 'promise to do something' etc. In the same way, we say 'a decision to do something', 'a promise to do something' etc. (noun + to..).
* I think his decision to give up his Job was stupid.
* George has a tendency to talk too much.
D. After dare you can use the infinitive with or without to:
* I wouldn't dare to tell him. or I wouldn't dare tell him.
But after daren't (or dare not), you must use the infinitive without to:
* I daren't tell him what happened. (not 'I daren't to tell him')
E. After the following verbs you can use a question word (what/whether/how etc.) + to ...
ask decide know remember forget explain learn understand wonder
We asked how to get to the station.
Have you decided where to go for your holidays?
I don't know whether to apply for the job or not.
Do you understand what to do?
Also: show/tell/ask/advise/teach somebody what/how/where to do something:
* Can somebody show me how to change the film in this camera?
* Ask Jack. He'll tell you what to do.
53.1 Complete the sentences for each situation.
1. Shall we get married? Yes, let's.
They decided _to get married._
2. Please help me. OK.
She agreed ---
3. Can I carry your bag for you? No, thanks. I can manage.
He offered ---
4. Let's meet at 8 o'clock. OK, fine.
They arranged ---
5. What's your name? I'm not going to tell you.
She refused ---
53.2 Complete each sentence with a suitable verb.
1. Don't forget to post the letter I gave you.
2. There was a lot of traffic but we managed --- to the airport in time.
3. Jill has decided not --- a car.
4. We've got a new computer in our office. I haven't learnt --- it yet.
5. I wonder where Sue is. She promised not late.
6. We were all too afraid to speak. Nobody dared --- anything.
53.3 Put the verb into the correct form, to ... or ~ing. (See Unit 52 for verb + ~ing.)
1. When I'm tired, I enjoy .watching television. It's relaxing. (watch)
2. It was a nice day, so we decided --- for a walk. (go)
3. It's a nice day. Does anyone fancy --- for a walk? (go)
4. I'm not in a hurry. I don't mind --- (wait)
5. They don't have much money. They can't afford --- out very often. (go)
6. I wish that dog would stop --- It's driving me mad. (bark)
7. Our neighbour threatened --- the police if we didn't stop the noise. (call)
8. We were hungry, so I suggested --- dinner early. (have)
9. Hurry up! I don't want to risk --- the train. (miss)
10. I'm still looking for a job but I hope --- something soon. (find)
53.4 Make a new sentence using the verb in brackets.
1. He has lost weight. (seem)
_He seems to have lost weight._
2. Tom is worried about something. (appear)
Tom appears ---
3. You know a lot of people. (seem)
4. My English is getting better. (seem)
5. That car has broken down. (appear)
6. David forgets things. (tend)
7. They have solved the problem. (claim)
53.5 Complete each sentence using what/how/whether + one of these verbs:
do go ride say use
1. Do you know how to get John's house?
2. Can you show me --- this washing machine?
3. Would you know --- if there was a fire in the building?
4. You'll never forget --- a bicycle once you have learned.
5. I was really astonished. I didn't know ---
6. I've been invited to the party but I don't know --- or not.
UNIT 54. Verb + (object) + to... (I want (you) to do etc.)
A. want ask help would like would love
expect beg mean (= intend) would prefer would hate
These verbs are followed by to... (infinitive). The structure can be:
verb + to ...
* We expected to be late.
* Would you like to go now?
* He doesn't want to know.
or verb + object + to...
* We expected Tom to be late.
* Would you like me to go now?
* He doesn't want anybody to know.
Be careful with want. Do not say 'want that...':
* Do you want me to come with you? (not 'Do you want that I come')
After help you can use the infinitive with or without to. So you can say:
* Can you help me to move this table? or Can you help me move this table?
B. tell remind force enable teach order warn invite persuade get (= persuade, arrange for)
These verbs have the structure verb + object + to ... :
* Can you remind me to phone Ann tomorrow?
* Who taught you to drive?
* I didn't move the piano by myself. I got somebody to help me.
* Jim said the switch was dangerous and warned me not to touch it.
In the next example, the verb is passive (was warned):
* I was warned not to touch the switch.
Note that you cannot use suggest with the structure verb + object + to ...
* Jane suggested that I should buy a car. (not 'Jane suggested me to buy')
For suggest, see Units 34 and 52.
C. advise recommend encourage allow permit forbid
There are two possible structures after these verbs. Compare:
verb + ~ing (without an object)
* I wouldn't recommend staying in that hotel.
* She doesn't allow smoking in the house.
verb + object + to...
* I wouldn't recommend anybody to stay in that hotel.
* She doesn't allow us to smoke in the house.
Compare these examples with (be) allowed (passive):
* Smoking isn't allowed in the house.
* We aren't allowed to smoke in the house.
D. Make and let
These verbs have the structure verb + object + infinitive (without to):
* The customs officer made Sally open her case. (not 'to open')
* Hot weather makes me feel tired. (= causes me to feel tired)
* Her parents wouldn't let her go out alone. (= wouldn't allow her to go out)
* Let me carry your bag for you.
We say 'make somebody do...' (not 'to do'), but the passive is '(be) made to do ...' (infinitive with to):
* Sally was made to open her case (by the customs officer).
54.1 Complete the questions, Use do you want me to ...? or would you like me to ...? with one of these verbs (+ any other necessary words): come lend repeat show shut wait
1. Do you want to go alone or _do you want me to come with you?_
2. Have you got enough money or do you want ---?
3. Shall I leave the window open or would you ---?
4. Do you know how to use the machine or would ---?
5. Did you hear what I said or do ---?
6. Can I go now or do ---?
54.2 Complete the sentences for each situation.
1. Look the door. OK.
She told him to lock the door.
2. Why don't you come and stay with us for a few day? Yes, I'd love to.
They invited him ---
3. Can I use your phone? No!
She wouldn't let ---
4. Be careful. Don't worry. I will.
She warned ---
5. Can you give me a hand? Yes, of course.
He asked ---
54.3 Complete these sentences so that the meaning is similar to the first sentence.
1. My father said I could use his car.
My father allowed _me to use his car._
2. I was surprised that it rained.
I didn't expect ---
3. Don't stop him doing what he wants.
4. He looks older when he wears glasses.
Glasses make ---
5. I think you should know the truth.
I want ---
6. Don't let me forget to phone my sister.
7. At first I didn't want to apply for the job but Sarah persuaded me.
Sarah persuaded ---
8. My lawyer said I shouldn't say anything to the police.
My lawyer advised ---
9. I was told that I shouldn't believe everything he says.
I was warned ---
10. If you've got a car, you are able to travel round more easily.
Having a car enables ---
54.4 Put the verb in the right form: ~ing or infinitive (with or without to).
1. She doesn't allow smoking in the house. (smoke)
2. I've never been to Iceland but I'd like --- there. (go)
3. I'm in a difficult position. What do you advise me ---? (do)
4. She said the letter was personal and wouldn't let me ---it. (read)
5. We were kept at the police station for two hours and then we were allowed --- (go)
6. Where would you recommend me --- for my holidays? (go)
7. I wouldn't recommend --- in that restaurant. The food is awful. (eat)
8. The film was very sad. It made me --- (cry)
9. Carol's parents always encouraged her --- hard at school. (study)
UNIT 55 Verb + ~ing or to... (1) (remember/regret etc.)
A. When one verb follows another verb, the structure is usually verb + ~ing or verb + to ... Compare:
verb + ~ing
* They denied stealing the money.
* I enjoy going out.
Often we use ~ing for an action that happens before the first verb or at the same time:
stealing <- denied
verb + to ...
* They decided to steal the money.
* I want to go out.
Often we use to... for an action that follows the first verb:
decided -> to steal want -> to go
This difference is often helpful (see Section B) but does not explain all uses of ~ing and to...
B. Some verbs can be followed by ~ing or to... with a difference of meaning:
I remember doing something = I did it and now I remember this.
You remember doing something after you have done it:
* I'm absolutely sure I locked the door. I clearly remember locking it. (= I locked it, and now I remember this)
* He could remember driving along the road just before the accident happened, but he couldn't remember the accident itself.
I remembered to do something = I remembered that I had to do it, and so I did it.
You remember to do something before you do it:
* I remembered to lock the door when I left but I forgot to shut the windows. (= I remembered that I had to lock the door and so I locked it)
* Please remember to post the letter. (= don't forget to post it)
I regret doing something = I did it and now I'm sorry about it:
* I now regret saying what I said. I shouldn't have said it.
I regret to say/to tell you/to inform you = I'm sorry that I have to say (etc.):
* (from a formal letter) We regret to inform you that we are unable to offer you the job.
Go on doing something = continue doing the same thing:
* The minister went on talking for two hours.
* We must change our ways. We can't go on living like this.
Go on to do something = do or say something new:
* After discussing the economy, the minister then went on to talk about foreign policy.
C. begin start intend continue bother
These verbs can be followed by ~ing or to... with little or no difference in meaning. So you can say:
* It has started raining. or It has started to rain.
* John intends buying a house. or John intends to buy ...
* Don't bother locking the door. or Don't bother to lock ...
But normally we do not use ~ing after ~ing:
* It's starting to rain. (not 'it's starting raining')
55.1 Put the verb into the correct form, ~ing or to... . Sometimes either form is possible.
1. They denied _stealing_ the money. (steal)
2. I don't enjoy --- very much. (drive)
3. I don't want --- out tonight. I'm too tired. (go)
4. I can't afford --- out tonight. I haven't got enough money. (go)
5. Has it stopped --- yet? (rain)
6. Can you remind me --- some coffee when we go out? (buy)
7. Why do you keep --- me questions? Can't you leave me alone? (ask)
8. Please stop --- me questions! (ask)
9. I refuse --- any more questions. (answer)
10. One of the boys admitted --- the window. (break)
11. The boy's father promised --- for the window to be repaired. (pay)
12. Ann was having dinner when the phone rang. She didn't answer the phone; she just carried on ---. (eat)
13. 'How did the thief get into the house?' 'I forgot --- the window.' (shut)
14. I've enjoyed --- you. (meet) I hope --- you again soon. (see)
15. The baby began --- in the middle of the night. (cry)
16. Julia has been ill but now she's beginning --- better. (get)
55.2 Here is some information about Tom when be was a child.
1. He was in hospital when he was four.
2. He went to Paris when he was eight.
3. Once he fell into a river.
4. He cried on his first day at school.
5. He said he wanted to be a doctor.
6. Once he was bitten by a dog.
He can still remember 1, 2 and 4. But be can't remember 3, S and 6. Write sentences beginning He can remember ... or He can't remember...
1. He can remember being in hospital when he was four.
55.3 Complete these sentences with a suitable verb in the correct form, ~ing or to ...
1. a. Please remember to lock the door when you go out.
b. A: You lent me some money a few months ago.
B: Did I? Are you sure? I don't remember --- you any money.
c. A: Did you remember --- your sister?
B: Oh no, I completely forgot. I'll phone her tomorrow.
d. When you see Mandy, remember --- her my regards, won't you?
e. Someone must have taken my bag. I clearly remember --- it by the window and now it has gone.
2. a. I believe that what I said was fair. I don't regret --- it.
b. (after a driving test) I regret --- that you have failed the test.
3. a. Keith joined the company 15 years ago. He was quickly promoted and became assistant manager after two years. A few years later he went on --- manager of the company.
b. I can't go on --- here any more. I want a different job.
c. When I came into the room, Liz was reading a newspaper. She looked up and said hello to me, and then went on --- her newspaper.
UNIT 56. Verb + ~ing or to ... (2) (try/need/help)
A. Try to ... and try ~ing
Try to do = attempt to do, make an effort to do:
* I was very tired. I tried to keep my eyes open but I couldn't.
* Please try to be quiet when you come home. Everyone will be asleep.
Try also means 'do something as an experiment or test'. For example:
* These cakes are delicious. You must try one. (= you must have one to see if you like it)
* We couldn't find anywhere to stay. We tried every hotel in the town but they were
all full. (= we went to every hotel to see if they had a room)
If try (with this meaning) is followed by a verb, we say try ~ing:
* A: The photocopier doesn't seem to be working.
B: Try pressing the green button. (= press the green button - perhaps this will help to solve the problem)
* I tried to move the table but it was too heavy. (so I couldn't move it)
* I didn't like the way the furniture was arranged, so I tried moving the table to the other side of the room. But it still didn't look right, so I moved it back again.
B. Need to ... and need ~ing
I need to do something = it is necessary for me to do it:
* I need to take more exercise.
* He needs to work harder if he wants to make progress.
* I don't need to come to the meeting, do I?
Something needs doing = something needs to be done:
* The batteries in the radio need changing. (= they need to be changed)
* Do you think my jacket needs cleaning? (= ... needs to be cleaned)
* It's a difficult problem. It needs thinking about very carefully. (= it needs to be thought about)
C. Help and can't help
You can say 'help to do' or 'help do' (infinitive with or without to):
* Everybody helped to clean up after the party. or Everybody helped clean up ...
* Can you help me to move this table? or Can you help me move ...
There is also an expression 'can't/couldn't help doing something'. 'I can't help doing something' = I can't stop myself from doing it:
* I don't like him but he has a lot of problems. I can't help feeling sorry for him.
* She tried to be serious but she couldn't help laughing. (= she couldn't stop herself from laughing)
* I'm sorry I'm so nervous. I can't help it. (= I can't help being nervous)
56.1 Make helpful suggestions. Each time write a sentence using try + one of the following
suggestions: phone him at work move the aerial change the batteries turn it the other way take an aspirin
1. The radio isn't working. I wonder what's wrong with it.
_Have you tried changing the batteries?_
Date: 2015-12-11; view: 1107