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UNIT 28. Must and can't 1 page

A. Study this example:

We use must to say that we feel sure something is true:

* You've been travelling all day. You must be tired. (Travelling is tiring and you've been travelling all day, so you must be tired.)

* 'Jim is a hard worker.' 'Jim? A hard worker? You must be joking. He's very lazy.'

* Carol must get very bored in her job. She does the same thing every day.

We use can't to say that we feel sure something is not possible:

* You've just had lunch. You can't be hungry already. (People are not normally hungry just after eating a meal. You've just eaten, so you can't be hungry.)

* Brian said he would definitely be here before 9.30. It's 10 o'clock now and he's never late. He can't be coming.

* They haven't lived here for very long. They can't know many people.

Study the structure:

I/you/he (etc.) must/can't be (tired/hungry/at work etc.)

I/you/he (etc.) must/can't be (doing/coming/joking etc.) do/go/know/have etc.

I/you/he (etc.) must/can't do/go/know/have etc.

B. For the past we use must have (done) and can't have (done). Study this example:

George is outside his friends' house.

He has rung the doorbell three times but nobody has answered.

They must have gone out. (otherwise they would have answered)

* The phone rang but I didn't hear it. I must have been asleep.

* I've lost one of my gloves. I must have dropped it somewhere.

* Jane walked past me without speaking. She can't have seen me.

* Tom walked straight into a wall. He can't have been looking where he was going.

Study the structure:

I/you/he (etc.) must/can't have been (asleep/at work etc.)

I/you/he (etc.) must/can't have been (doing/working etc.)

I/you/he (etc.) must/can't have done /gone/known/had etc.

Couldn't have ... is possible instead of can't have...:

* She couldn't have seen me.

* Tom couldn't have been looking where he was going.



28.1 Put in must or can't.

1. You've been travelling all day. You must be very tired.

2. That restaurant --- be very good. It's always full of people.

3. That restaurant --- be very good. It's always empty.

4. You're going on holiday next week. You --- be looking forward to it.

5. It rained every day during their holiday, so they --- have had a very nice time.

6. Congratulations on passing your exam. You --- be very pleased.

7. You got here very quickly. You --- have walked very fast.

8. Bill and Sue go away on holiday very often, so they --- be short of money.

28.2 Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form.

1. I've lost one of my gloves. I must have dropped it somewhere.

2. They haven't lived here for long. They can't know many people.

3. Ted isn't at work today. He must --- ill.

4. Ted wasn't at work last week. He must --- ill.

5. (The doorbell rings) I wonder who that is. It can't --- Mary. She's still at work at this time.

6. Carol knows a lot about films. She must --- to the cinema a lot.

7. Look. Jack is putting on his hat and coat. He must --- out.

8. I left my bike outside the house last night and this morning it isn't there any more. Somebody must --- it.

9. Ann was in a very difficult situation. It can't --- easy for her.

10. There is a man walking behind us. He has been walking behind us for the last 20 minutes. He must --- us.

28.3 Read the situations and use the words in brackets to write sentences with must have and can't have.

1. The phone rang but I didn't hear it. (I/asleep)

_I must have been asleep._

2. Jane walked past me without speaking. (she/see/me)

_She can't have seen me._

3. The jacket you bought is very good quality. (it/very expensive)

4. I haven't seen the people next door for ages. (they/go away)

5. I can't find my umbrella. (I/leave/it in the restaurant last night)

6. Don passed the exam without studying for it. (the exam/very difficult)

7. She knew everything about our plans. (she/listen/to our conversation)

8. Fiona did the opposite of what I asked her to do. (she/understand/what I said)

9. When I woke up this morning, the light was on. (I/forget/to turn it off)

10. The lights were red but the car didn't stop. (the driver I see/the red light)

11. I was woken up in the middle of the night by the noise next door. (the neighbours/have/a party)



UNIT 29. May and might (1)

A. Study this example situation:

You are looking for Bob. Nobody is sure where he is but you get some suggestions.

You: Where's Bob?

He may be in his office. (= perhaps he is in his office)

He might be having lunch. (= perhaps he is having lunch)

Ask Ann. She might know. (= perhaps she knows)

We use may or might to say that something is a possibility. Usually you can use may or might you can say:

* It may be true. or It might be true. (= perhaps it is true)

* She might know. or She may know.

The negative forms are may not and might not (or mightn't):

* It might not be true. (= perhaps it isn't true)

* I'm not sure whether I can lend you any money. I may not have enough. (= perhaps I don't have enough)

Study the structure:

I/you/he (etc.) may/might (not) be (true/in his office etc.)

I/you/he (etc.) may/might (not) be (doing/working/having etc.)

I/you/he (etc.) may/might (not) do/know/have/want etc.

B. For the past we use may have (done) or might have (done):

* A: I wonder why Kay didn't answer the phone.

B: She may have been asleep. (= perhaps she was asleep)

* A: I can't find my bag anywhere.

B: You might have left it in the shop. (= perhaps you left it in the shop)

* A: I was surprised that Sarah wasn't at the meeting.

B: She might not have known about it. (= perhaps she didn't know)

* A: I wonder why Colin was in such a bad mood yesterday.

B: He may not have been feeling well. (= perhaps he wasn't feeling well)

Study the structure:

I/you/he (etc.) may/might (not) have been (asleep/at home etc.)

I/you/he (etc.) may/might (not) have been (doing/waiting etc.)

I/you/he (etc.) may/might (not) have done/known/had/seen etc.

C. Sometimes could has a similar meaning to may and might:

* The phone's ringing. It could be Tim. (= it may/might be Tim)

* You could have left your bag in the shop. (= you may/might have left it...)

But couldn't (negative) is different from may not and might not. Compare:

* She was too far away, so she couldn't have seen you. (= it is not possible that she saw you)

* A: I wonder why she didn't say hello.

B: She might not have seen you. (= perhaps she didn't see you; perhaps she did)



29.1 Write these sentences in a different way using may or might.

1. Perhaps Margaret is in her office. _She might be in her office._

2. Perhaps Margaret is busy.

3. Perhaps she is working.

4. Perhaps she wants to be alone.

5. Perhaps she was ill yesterday.

6. Perhaps she went home early.

7. Perhaps she had to go home early.

8. Perhaps she was working yesterday.

In sentences 9-11 use may not or might not.

9. Perhaps she doesn't want to see me.

10. Perhaps she isn't working today.

11. Perhaps she wasn't feeling well yesterday.

29.2 Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form.

1. 'Where's Bob?' 'I'm not sure. He might _be having_ lunch.'

2. 'Who is that man with Ann?' 'I'm not sure. It might --- her brother.'

3. 'Who was the man we saw with Ann yesterday?' 'I'm not sure. It might --- her brother.'

4. 'Why are those people waiting in the street?' 'I don't know. They might --- for a bus.'

5. 'Shall I buy this book for Tim?' 'You'd better not. He might already --- it.'

29.3 Read the situations and make sentences from the words in brackets. Use may or might.

1. I can't find George anywhere. I wonder where he is.

a (he/go/shopping) He may have gone shopping.

b (he/play/tennis) He might be playing tennis.

2. I'm looking for Helen. Do you know where she is?

a (she/watch/TV/in her room)

b (she/go/out)

3. I can't find my umbrella. Have you seen it?

a (it/be/in the car)

b (you/leave/in the restaurant last night)

4. Why didn't Tom answer the doorbell? I'm sure he was in the house at the time.

a (he/be/in the bath)

b (he/not/hear/the bell)

29.4 Complete the sentences using might not or couldn't.

1. A: Do you think she saw you?

B: No, she was too far away. _She couldn't have seen me._

2. A: I wonder why she didn't say hello. Perhaps she didn't see me.

B: That's possible. _She might not have seen you._

3. A: I wonder why Ann didn't come to the party. Perhaps she wasn't invited.

B: Yes, it's possible. She ---

4. A: Tom loves parties. I'm sure he would have come to the party if he'd been invited.

B: I agree. He ---

5. A: I wonder how the fire started. Do you think it was an accident?

B: No, the police say it ---

6. A: How did the fire start? I suppose it was an accident.

B: Well, the police aren't sure. They say it ---



UNIT 30. May and might (2)

A. We use may and might to talk about possible actions or happenings in the future:

* I haven't decided yet where to spend my holidays. I may go to Ireland. (= perhaps I will go to Ireland)

* Take an umbrella with you when you go out. It might rain later. (= perhaps it will rain)

* The bus doesn't always come on time. We might have to wait a few minutes. (= perhaps we will have to wait)

The negative forms are may not and might not (mightn't):

* Ann may not come to the party tonight. She isn't well. (= perhaps she will not come)

* There might not be a meeting on Friday because the director is ill. (= perhaps there will not be a meeting)

B. Usually it doesn't matter whether you use may or might. So you can say:

* I may go to Ireland. or I might go to Ireland.

* Jane might be able to help you. or Jane may be able to help you.

But we use only might (not may) when the situation is not real:

* If I knew them better, I might invite them to dinner. (The situation here is not real because I don't know them very well, so I'm not going to invite them. 'May' is not possible in this example.)

C. There is also a continuous form: may/might be ~ing. Compare this with will be ~ing:

* Don't phone at 8.30. I'll be watching the football on television.

* Don't phone at 8.30. I might be watching (or I may be watching) the football on

television. (= perhaps I'll be watching it)

For will be ~ing see Unit 24.

We also use may/might be ~ing for possible plans. Compare:

* I'm going to Ireland in July. (for sure)

* I may be going (or I might be going) to Ireland in July. (possible)

But you can also say 'I may go (or I might go) to Ireland...' with little difference of meaning.

D. Might as well/may as well

Study this example:

Helen and Clare have just missed the bus. The buses run every hour.

Helen: What shall we do? Shall we walk?

Clare: We might as well. It's a nice day and I don't want to wait here for an hour.

'(We) might as well do something'= (We) should do something because there is nothing better to do and there is no reason not to do it.

You can also say 'may as well'.

* A: What time are you going?

B: Well, I'm ready, so I might as well go now. (or ... I may as well go now)

* The buses are so expensive these days, you might as well get a taxi. (= taxis are just as good, no more expensive)



30. Write sentences with may or might.

1. Where are you going for your holidays? (to Ireland???)

I haven't decided yet. _I may go to Ireland._

2. What sort of car are you going to buy? (a Mercedes???)

I'm not sure yet. I ---

3. What are you doing this weekend? (go to London???)

I haven't decided yet. ---

4. Where are you going to hang that picture? (in the dining room???)

I haven't made up my mind yet. ---

5. When is Tom coming to see us? (on Saturday???)

I don't know yet. ---

6. What is Julia going to do when she leaves school? (go to university???)

She hasn't decided yet. ---

30.2 Complete the sentences using might + one of these verbs:

bite break need rain slip wake

1. Take an umbrella with you when you go out. It _might rain_ later.

2. Don't make too much noise. You --- the baby.

3. Be careful of that dog. It --- you.

4. I don't think we should throw that letter away. We --- it later.

5. Be careful. The footpath is very icy. You ---

6. I don't want the children to play in this room. They --- something.

30.3 Complete the sentences using might be able to or might have to + a suitable verb.

1. I can't help you but why don't you ask Jill? She _might be able to help_ you.

2. I can't meet you this evening but I --- you tomorrow evening.

3 I'm not working on Saturday but I --- on Sunday.

4. George isn't well. He --- to hospital for an operation.

30.4 Write sentences with may not or might not.

1. (I don't know if Ann will come to the party.) Ann might not come to the party.

2. (I don't know if I'll go out this evening.) I ---

3. (I don't know if Tom will like the present I bought for him.)

Tom ---

4. (I don't know if Sue will be able to meet us this evening.) ---

30.5 Read the situations and make sentences with may/might as well.

1. You and a friend have just missed the bus. The buses run every hour.

You say: We'll have to wait an hour for the next bus. _We might as well waik._

2. You have a free ticket for a concert. You're not very keen on the concert but you decide to go. You say: I --- to the concert. It's a pity to waste a free ticket.

3. You're in a cafe with a friend. You've finished your drinks. It's a nice cafe and there is no reason to go now, so why not have another drink? You say: We ---. What would you like?

4. You and a friend are at home. You are bored. There's a film on TV starting in a few minutes. You say: ---. There's nothing else to do.



UNIT 31.Must and have to

A. We use must and have to to say that it is necessary to do something. Sometimes it doesn't matter which you use:

* Oh, it's later than I thought. I must go. or I have to go.

But there is a difference between must and have to and sometimes this is important:

Must is personal. We use must when we give our personal feelings.

'You must do something' = 'I (the speaker) say it is necessary':

* She's a really nice person. You must meet her. (= I say this is necessary)

* I haven't phoned Ann for ages. I must phone her tonight.


* I must get up early tomorrow. There are a lot of things I want to do.


Have to is impersonal. We use have to for facts, not for our personal feelings.

'You have to do something' because of a rule or the situation:

* You can't turn right here. You have to turn left. (because of the traffic system)

* My eyesight isn't very good. I have to wear glasses for reading.

* George can't come out with us this evening. He has to work.

* I have to get up early tomorrow. I'm going away and my train leaves at 7.30.

If you are not sure which to use, it is usually safer to use have to.

B. you can use must to talk about the present or future, but not the past:

* We must go now.

* We must go tomorrow. (but not 'We must go yesterday')

You can use have to in all forms. For example:

* I had to go to hospital. (past)

* Have you ever had to go to hospital? (present perfect)

* I might have to go to hospital. (infinitive after might)

In questions and negative sentences with have to, we normally use do/does/did:

* What do I have to do to get a driving licence? (not 'What have I to do?')

* Why did you have to go to hospital?

* Karen doesn't have to work on Saturdays.

C. Mustn't and don't have to are completely different:

You mustn't do something = it is necessary that you do not do it (so, don't do it):

* You must keep it a secret. You mustn't tell anyone. (= don't tell anyone)

* I promised I would be on time. I mustn't be late. (= I must be on time)

You don't have to do something = you don't need to do it (but you can if you want):

* You can tell me if you want but you don't have to tell me. (= you don't need to tell me)

* I'm not working tomorrow, so I don't have to get up early.

D. You can use 'have got to' instead of 'have to'. So you can say:

* I've got to work tomorrow. or have to work tomorrow.

* When has Ann got to go? or When does Ann have to go?



31.1 Complete these sentences with must or have to (in the correct form). Sometimes it is possible to use either; sometimes only have to is possible.

1. It's later than I thought. I must or have to go now.

2. Jack left before the end of the meeting. He had to go home early.

3. In Britain many children. --- wear uniform when they go to school.

4. When you come to London again, you --- come and see us.

5. Last night Don became ill suddenly. We --- call a doctor.

6. You really --- work harder if you want to pass the examination.

7. I'm afraid I can't come tomorrow. I.. --- work late.

8. I'm sorry I couldn't come yesterday. I --- work late.

9. Paul doesn't like his new job. Sometimes he --- work at weekends.

10. Caroline may --- go away next week.

11. We couldn't repair the car ourselves. We --- take it to a garage.

12. Julia wears glasses. She --- wear glasses since she was very young.

31.2 Make questions with have to.

1. I had to go to hospital last week. Why did you have to go to hospital?

2. I have to get up early tomorrow. Why --- early?

3. Ann has to go somewhere now. Where --- she ---.

4. George had to pay a parking fine yesterday. How much ---.

5. I had to wait a long time for the bus. How long ---.

6. I have to phone my sister now. Why ---

7. Paul has to leave soon. What time ---

31.3 Complete these sentences using don't/doesn't/didn't have to + one of these verbs:

do get up go go pay shave wait work

1. I'm not working tomorrow, so I _don't have to get up_ to early.

2. The car park is free-you --- to park your car there.

3. I went to the bank this morning. There was no queue, so I ---.

4. Sally is extremely rich. She ---.

5. We've got plenty of time. We --- yet.

6. Jack has got a beard, so he ---.

7., I'm not particularly busy. I've got a few things to do but I ---them now.

8. A man was slightly injured in the accident but he --- to hospital.

31.4 Complete these sentences with mustn't or don't/doesn't have to.

1. I don't want anyone to know. You _mustn't_ tell anyone.

2 He doesn't have to wear a suit to work but he usually does.

3. I can stay in bed tomorrow morning because I --- go to work.

4. Whatever you do, you --- touch that switch. It's very dangerous.

5. There's a lift in the building, so we --- climb the stairs.

6. You --- forget what I told you. It's very important.

7. Sue --- get up early. She gets up early because she wants to,

8. Don't make so much noise. We --- wake the baby.

9. I --- eat too much. I'm supposed to be on a diet.

10. You --- be a good player to enjoy a game of tennis.



UNIT 32. Must mustn't needn't

A. Must mustn't needn't

'You must do something' = it is necessary that you do it:

* Don't tell anybody what I said. You must keep it a secret.

* We haven't got much time. We must hurry.

'You mustn't do something' = it is necessary that you do not do it (so don't do it):

* You must keep it a secret. You mustn't tell anybody else. (= don't tell anybody else)

* It's essential that nobody hears us. We mustn't make any noise.

'You needn't do something' = it is not necessary that you do it, you don't need to do it:

* You can come with me if you like but you needn't come if you don't want to. (= it is not necessary for you to come)

* We've got plenty of time. We needn't hurry. (= it is not necessary to hurry)

B. Instead of needn't, you can use don't/doesn't need to. So you can say:

* We needn't hurry. or We don't need to hurry.

Remember that we say 'don't need to do', but 'needn't do' (without to).

Needn't and don't need to are similar to don't have to (see Unit 31C):

* We've got plenty of time. We don't have to hurry.

C. Needn't have (done)

Study this example situation:

I think it's going to rain. I'll take the umbrella.

I needn't have brought the umbrella.

George had to go out. He thought it was going to rain, so he decided to take the umbrella.

But it didn't rain, so the umbrella was not necessary. So:

He needn't have taken the umbrella.

'He needn't have taken the umbrella' = He took the umbrella but this was not necessary. Of course, he didn't know this when he went out.

Compare needn't (do) and needn't have (done):

* That shirt isn't dirty. You needn't wash it.

* Why did you wash that shirt? It wasn't dirty. You needn't have washed it.

D. Didn't need to (do) and needn't have (done)

I didn't need to ... = it was not necessary for me to... (and I knew this at the time):

* I didn't need to get up early, so I didn't.

* I didn't need to get up early, but it was a lovely morning, so I did.

'I needn't have (done) something' = I did something but now I know that it was not necessary:

* I got up very early because I had to get ready to go away. But in fact it didn't take me long to get ready. So, I needn't have got up so early. I could have stayed in bed longer.



32.1 Complete the sentences using needn't + one of these verbs:

ask come explain leave tell walk

1. We've got plenty of time. We _needn't leave_ yet.

2. I can manage the shopping alone. You --- with me.

3. We --- all the way home. We can get a taxi.

4. just help yourself if you'd like something to eat. You --- first.

5. We can keep this a secret between ourselves. We --- anybody else.

6. I understand the situation perfectly. You --- further.

32.2 Complete the sentences with must, mustn't or needn't.

1. We haven't got much time. We _must_ hurry.

2. We've got plenty of time. We _needn't_ hurry.

3. We have enough food at home so we --- go shopping today.

4. Jim gave me a letter to post. I --- remember to post it.

5. Jim gave me a letter to post. I --- forget to post it.

6. There's plenty of time for you to make up your mind. You --- decide now.

7. You --- wash those tomatoes. They've already been washed.

8. This is a valuable book. You --- look after it carefully and you ---lose it.

9. 'What sort of house do you want to buy? Something big?' 'Well, it --- be big--that's not important. But it --- have a nice garden--that's essential.'

32.3 Read the situations and make sentences with needn't have.

1. George went out. He took an umbrella because he thought it was going to rain. But it didn't rain. He needn't have taken an umbrella.

2. Ann bought some eggs when she went shopping. When she got home, she found that she already had plenty of eggs. She ---.

3. A friend got angry with you and shouted at you. You think this was unnecessary. Later you say to him/her: You ---.

4. Brian had no money, so he sold his car. A few days later he won some money in a lottery. He ---.

5. When we went on holiday, we took the camera with us but we didn't use it in the end. ---.

6. I thought I was going to miss my train so I rushed to the station. But the train was late and in the end I had to wait 20 minutes. ---.

32.4 Write two sentences for each situation. Use needn't have in the first sentence and could have in the second (as in the example). For could have see Unit 27.

1. Why did you rush? Why didn't you take your time?

_You needn't have rushed. You could have taken your time._

2. Why did you walk home? Why didn't you take a taxi?

3. Why did you stay at a hotel? Why didn't you stay with us?

4. Why did she phone me in the middle of the night? Why didn't she phone me in the morning?

5. Why did you leave without saying anything? Why didn't you say goodbye to me?



UNIT 33. Should (1)

A. You should do something = it Is a good thing to do or the right thing to do. You can use should to give advice or to give an opinion:

* You look tired. You should go to bed.

* The government should do more to help homeless people.

* 'Should we invite Susan to the party?' 'Yes, I think we should.'

We often use should with I think/I don't think/Do you think...?:

* I think the government should do more to help homeless people.

* I don't think you should work so hard.

* 'Do you think I should apply for this job?' 'Yes, I think you should.'

'You shouldn't do something' = it isn't a good thing to do:

* You shouldn't believe everything you read in the newspapers.

Should is not as strong as must:

* You should apologise. (= it would be a good thing to do)

* You must apologise. (= you have no alternative)

B. We also use should when something is not right or what we expect. For example:

* I wonder where Liz is. She should be here by now. (= she isn't here yet, and this is not normal)

* The price on this packet is wrong. It should be L1.20, not L1.50.

* Those boys shouldn't be playing football at this time. They should be at school.

We use should to say that we expect something to happen:

* She's been studying hard for the exam, so she should pass. (= I expect her to pass)

* There are plenty of hotels in the town. It shouldn't be difficult to find somewhere to stay. (= I don't expect that it will be difficult)

C. 'You should have done something' = you didn't do it but it would have been the right thing to do:

* It was a great party last night. You should have come. Why didn't you? (= you didn't come but it would have been good to come)

* I'm feeling sick. I shouldn't have eaten so much chocolate. (= I ate too much chocolate)

* I wonder why they're so late. They should have been here an hour ago.

* She shouldn't have been listening to our conversation. It was private.

Compare should (do) and should have (done):

* You look tired. You should go to bed now.

* You went to bed very late last night. You should have gone to bed earlier.

D. Ought to ...

You can use ought to instead of should in the sentences on this page. Note that we say 'ought to do...' (with to):

* Do you think I ought to apply for this job? (= Do you think I should apply ...?)

* Jack ought not to go to bed so late. (= Jack shouldn't go ...)

* It was a great party last night. You ought to have come.

* She's been studying hard for the exam, so she ought to pass.



33.1 For each situation write a sentence with should or shouldn't + one of the following.

go away for a few days go to bed so late look for another job put some pictures on the walls take a photograph use her car so much

1. (Liz needs a change.) _She should go away for a few days._

2. (My salary is very low.) You ---.

3. (Jack always has difficulty getting up.) He ---.

4. (What a beautiful view!) You---.

5. (Sue drives everywhere. She never walks.) She ---.

6. (Bill's room isn't very interesting.) ---.

33.2 Read the situations and write sentences with I think/I don't think ... should...

1. Peter and Judy are planning to get married. You think it's a bad idea. (get married) _I don't think they should get married._

2. You don't like smoking, especially in restaurants. (be banned) I think ---.

3. I have a very bad cold but I plan to go out this evening. You don't think this is a good idea. You say to me: (go out) ---.

4. You are fed up with the government. You think they have made too many mistakes. (resign) ---.

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