1.Translate the following sentences into Russian: Define the function of the word «should»
1. The doctor in charge insisted that the child whose health had been weakened by the disease should rest in bed for an hour in the daytime. 2. It is necessary that the child should always sleep alone. 3. Should crying or coughing occur during the examination of a small child the character of these must be noted. 4. One daily nap should continue until the sixth year. 5. One should be cautious in stating diagnosis. . 6. Sleeping out of doors or with the windows open should always be advisable. 7. Should the condition progress, the patient should be given another course of intensive therapy. 8. We suppose we should be allowed to assist during the operation which should be performed by our doctor. 9. I was told that I should be able to get up as soon as my condition considerably improved, the temperature fell to normal, and the inflammation subsided. 10. We should like to stress the great importance of sleep for maintaining health and labour capacity of man.
II. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to Participles 1 and II used attributively.
1.As the child grows the amount of sleep required gradually decreases. 2. The bed clothing needed must vary with the season. 3.The growing organism must have sufficient amount of sleep. 4. Adenoma, a form of tumour occurring in the cellular tissue of a gland, is usually treated according to the organ involved. 5. Disease-causing, or pathogenic, bacteria harm the human body by the poisons or toxins produced by them. 6. The work described here was part of an investigation of a skin disease encountered in early childhood. 7. Sore throat is one of the most common conditions met with in medical practice. 8. The wounds studied differed in size, etiology and bacterial flora, but each was of the type regarded as surgically infected. 9. Lesions remaining for a long time within the stomach produce slowly developing symptoms. 10. This nervous condition improving method is similar to that employed in many clinics of our country. 11. When checked, the child showed no abnormality as to growth and development. 12. If given a sufficient amount of mother’s milk the normal child is satisfied after a ten-fifteen minute nursing. 13. If properly treated, a disease may have no sequelae in later life. 14. Acid is a substance which when combined with alkalies forms salts. 15. Infected adenoids, if untreated, usually remain enlarged and cause other disturbances, colds and other infections being common. 16. When used indiscriminately, antibiotics may lead to growth within the body of new strains of previously harmless bacteria which become drug-resistant and thus expose the patient to residual infections. 17. High concentrations of mineral acids have a corrosive effect on human tissue, and, when taken internally, cause severe burning sensation in the mouth, throat and stomach, followed by abdominal pain and vomiting. 18. Vitamins do not decompose until heated. 19. Although described in the first century AD migraine has been extensively investigated only in recent years. 20. Whether followed by complications or not nephritis requires constant supervision.
III. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the conjunctions and prepositions.
A. 1. Poliomyelitis occurs both in sporadic and epidemic forms. 2. In grave cases of chorea children can neither sit nor stand; they cannot dress or eat by themselves and often have speech disturbances. 3. A tendency of bleeding may depend either on changes in the blood itself (reduced coagulation due to deficiency of fibrinogen in the blood), or changes in the vascular wall. 4. As in many other illnesses the food in acute laryngitis should be reduced both in quantity and strength. 5. When small doses of the antimeasles serum are administered during the first incubation days the disease is either prevented or considerably mitigated. 6. Unlike measles, rubella either has no prodromal stage or the latter is extremely feebly pronounced. 7. Both a stridulous and a labored breathing may be present when a laryngeal diphtheria exists. 8. Chickenpox is neither transmitted through things nor through third persons. 9. When the inflammation reaches the intermediate tubes in acute bronchitis, both respiration and pulse are accelerated.
B. 1. The rate of growth of the head during the first year of life of an infant is not uniform, since it is far more rapid during the first half of the year than it is during the second half. 2. Carcinoma of the thyroid in children usually lasts many years before death occurs. 3. After operation the patient should have strict bed rest for 4-6 weeks so that all the soft and bony tissue damage may heal. 4. Since his discharge from the hospital he has continued to feel exceedingly well. 5. Additional studies as roentgen ray examinations, biopsy and sternal puncture may be necessary before the actual diagnosis of anaemia is established. 6. The hypotensive agents were given to the patients promptly after the diagnosis was established. 7. A tuberculin test should never be omitted once suspicion of tuberculous meningitis has been aroused. 8. The only illness since birth was a mild case of chicken pox at 3 months of age. 9. During the prodromal symptoms, before the appearance of the rash, measles is similar to other acute upper respiratory infections. 10. Operation was considered only after conservative measures had failed. 11. All the children with negative reactions in the untreated group were tested in a late stage of meningitis, most of them only once. 12. The paralyses of intercostal muscles and the diaphragm are very grave since they impair respiration. 13. Surgery can be started once the body temperature falls below 390C (degrees). 14.After vaccination the child may be washed and bathed until the appearance of an inflammatory reaction, but, once inflammation and suppuration have begun, the vaccinated arm must not be washed. 15. Pancreas is the most inaccessible structure in the gastrointestinal system, since it cannot readily be palpated, visualized, opacified with radiopaque substances or biopsied. 16. A child with bronchitis should be kept in bed at least three days after the temperature is normal, and kept in the house until the lungs are entirely clear. 17. Since the disease is highly contagious, every case should be isolated.
IV. Translate the following sentences into Russian, paying attention to the forms of adjectives and adverbs:
1. Enlarged bronchial glands produce a most persistent cough. 2. Quinsy occurs much less frequently among children than among adults. 3. The inflammation begins in the deeper tissues, later affecting the mucosa. 4. The onset of the peritonsillar abscess is similar to that of tonsillitis, but the pain is much more severe, and nearly always on one side only, radiating into the ear. 5. The symptoms of adenoids may get worse as the child grows older. 6. Any disease of the lung or pleura will produce an increased respiratory rate; the greater the involvement, usually the more rapid will be the breathing. 7. The younger the child, the more active is the infection. 8. Bronchitis of the smallest tubes, or capillary bronchitis, is the most dangerous form. 9. The spread of infection is made easier in the colder months by closer contact with large groups of people. 10. The most valuable proteins are found in meat, milk and eggs. 11. Anemia due to increased destruction of red cells (hemolytic anemia) is less common than anemia due to decreased blood formation. 12. Substernal pain is more significant than precordial pain. 13. The most serious cases of rheumatic fever are associated with the lesions in the myocardium, the pericardium, and the valves of the heart. The more severe the acute rheumatic fever, the greater the likelihood of cardiac involvement. 14. Rheumatic fever is more widespread among older children (8-15 years of age), while in early childhood the rate of rheumatic morbidity is much lower. 15. Mortality in pneumonia depends on the form of the disease, as well as the age and condition of the child. The younger the child, the higher the mortality. 16. The sooner the antimeasles serum is administered, the more reliable the prophylactic effect.
V. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the Subjective and Objective Infinitive Constructions, functions of the infinitive.
1. Preventive medicine urges us to prepare and eat nutritious food, control our weight and visit our doctor periodically for check-up examinations. 2. Children, particularly, are apt to have severe abdominal pain as one of the symptoms of some transmittable diseases, including pneumonia and infectious mononucleosis. 3. Antibiotics are known to have been employed with dramatic success in the treatment of many bacterial, viral and fungus diseases. 4. Many different organisms have been suspected to be causative agents of acute infections of the upper respiratory tract. 5. Certain persons seem to be immune to acute rhinitis while others have repeated attacks. Immunity, if acquired, seems to be of very short duration as shown by repeated attacks. 6. Skin is believed to be the most active tissue. 7. Of 15 patients treated 3 were found to show sensitiveness to the local application of the drug administered. 8. In case of local application of some drugs healing seemed to have been definitely slowed. 9. Examination showed the patient to have moderate tenderness over the right abdomen. 10. The laparotomy demonstrated the patient to have sustained a perforation both of the stomach and the bladder. 11. The experiments repeatedly indicated the defence mechanism to be one of local manifestations of a general resistance. 12. Nausea and vomiting, the most common early symptoms, should cause one to reduce the dose of the drug used. 13. After eliciting briefly the chief symptoms from which the child seems to be suffering, it is often well to allow the mother to give as full an account as possible of the case. 14. Radiation appears to lower immunity, damage connective tissue and lead to premature aging. 15. The way to be sure that your child is well is to consult a district pediatrician at regular intervals. 16. The mother is usually the first to note any changes in her baby’s appearance and behaviour. 17. There are many diseases and injuries of a child to be reported to the doctor immediately. 18. To see how the child is growing, to observe his development, to give him necessary inoculations is the task of a district pediatrician. 19. To treat a child is often more difficult than an adult as children vary greatly from the latter. 20. The first step to assure survival of a premature baby is to regulate the body heat.
VI. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to Modal Verbs.
1. When eliciting a history of a patient attention is to be paid to such symptoms as cough, dyspnea, digestive disturbances, headache, dizziness, etc. 2. Pain should be relieved at once. 3. Great importance must be given to the results of the necessary careful postoperative treatment. 4. It should be emphasized that pain in cases of recurring ulcer may have no relation to meals. 5. Further steps in treatment are to depend upon the general condition of the patient. 6. This tumour was to be excised owing to its site and size. 7. At present time, however, one can still find a great variance of opinion as to the age at which operations in early life should be performed as well as to the best type of operation to use. 8. After operation, the patient should have strict bed rest for 4-6 weeks so that all the soft and bony tissue damage may heal. 9. Order of examination depends on circumstances and the greatest flexibility in the plan is to be allowed. 10. The cause of the headache must be sought for and appropriate treatment instituted. 11. If the infant is well, it should be put in its bed at the time for sleep and left alone in the room. If it wakes in the night it must not be taken from the bed unless it is time to nurse it, or the diaper requires changing. 12. When the pulse of the child has to be examined the warm fingers may be applied very lightly over the radial artery; and the physician’s hand should readily follow, without restraining any movements of the hand of the patient. 13 In case of a child when the medicine has to be administered it is necessary to determine exactly the method of giving it – by mouth, by injections, etc. 14. A physician ought to do everything he is able to render emergency aid to a patient in any circumstances and at any time.
VII. Translate the following sentences into Russian.
1.The gastric juice begins to be secreted even before the food enters the stomach, at the sight and smell of food. 2. Diabetes has originally been considered to be an incurable disease. 3. When he was 48 years old he was diagnosed as having diabetes. 4. This physician’s having made thorough examination and having had all analyses helped him to put a correct diagnosis. 5. We know the violet rays to be the most powerful in killing bacteria. 6 The hands should be washed before eating, especially after prolonged contact with everything in which bacteria are likely to live. 7. A large number of diseases have been definitely shown to be due to specific organisms. 8. Beginning in early infancy the baby should be trained to sleep all night from 6 to 6, except for the night feeding. 9. The peristalsis of the upper intestine induced by taking food helps the peristalsis required for defecation. 10. In treating backache the doctor first endeavors to establish the specific weight condition involved and its sources. 11. Suppurative arthritis results from spreading the infection which reaches the joint either by penetrating the epiphysis or directly from the subperiosteal abscess.
VIII. Translate the following sentences. Define the function of the Gerund.
1. Ultraviolet rays increase the resistance of the organism and are an important agent for preventing and curing rickets. 2. Sunning is not recommended on an empty stomach or earlier than one hour after breakfast. 3. In any illness one of the first considerations is the maintenance of nutrition without causing gastro-intestinal disturbance. 4. To get the best results in treating children suffering with diseases of the respiratory system, especially pneumonia, the child should receive the oxygen in a chamber specially constructed for this purpose. 5. Swimming is good for hardening and strengthening the body, and for avoiding future accidents in the water. 6. The mucus which moistens the entire surface of the mucous coat of the digestive tract facilitates the movement of food and protects the mucous coat from being damaged by solid particles of food and various chemical substances. 7. The liver participates in carbohydrate metabolism by forming and storing glycogen 8. Physical training helps the child in growing up healthy, sturdy and brave. 9. When walking with children younger than 3 years it is advisable to use a harness instead of leading the child by the hand.
IX. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. Fifty infants admitted to the hospital were determined early signs of heart failure. 2. All infants except those having tetralogy of Fallot have recovered from heart failure. 3. Examining the infant attentively the doctor detected the cause of the deformity. 4. Pediatricians trained by our Academy work in the children’s hospitals of the region. 5. The child operated on for congenital heart defect will be followed till complete recovery. 6. All measures required are to be undertaken to save the life. 7. Unless treated in due time any disease brings about complications. 8. Being seen, the children were revealed some signs of heart failure. 9. Having reviewed the infants case histories, the surgeons revealed the incidence of respiratory infection. 10. Having been examined 19 of the 40 infants were referred to pediatric surgery.
PEDIATRIC AS A SCIENCE
The major developments in pediatrics, the special branch of medical science that deals with the prevention and treatment of diseases of children, took place after the turn of the 20th century. Prior to that time there existed but little exact knowledge of the special problems of child health. Infants and young children were regarded merely as miniature adults whose physical, mental and emotional disorders required no special consideration beyond that afforded mature persons.
As a result of this attitude and the undeveloped state of medical science and practice, the incidence of disease and mortality rates among children were appalling: 20% to 40% of all infants born alive died during the first year of life. Of the total deaths in the entire population 3 out 4 occurred in children under 12 years. However, as a result of revolutionary advances in the field of pediatrics and intensive application of sound public health principles, death rates among children in the more advanced parts of the world had been reduced.
One of the most important steps in the progress of modern pediatrics was the recognition by medical practitioners of certain fundamental differences between the child and the adult. Because of his state of immaturity, the infant or young child differs from the mature person physiologically, psychologically, immunologically and anatomically. The constant changes in functional patterns incident to growth and development impose different standards for health appraisal and for nutritional medicinal and other health requirements in the very young throughout the wide range of diseases affecting infants and children, the concept of prevention predominates that the treatment in the mind of the properly oriented physician.
Fortunately, advances in the sciences of genetics, nutrition, microbiology, immunology, epidemiology, hygiene and sanitation made it possible for medical practitioners and public health officers to exercise a large measure of control over many of the most devastating physical diseases. Improvements in diagnostic laboratory techniques together with revolutionary developments in pediatric surgery and treatment with drugs and immune blood serums reduced the dire effects of certain nonpreventable diseases to a minimum as well.
The diseases that affect infants and children may be classified according in the nature of their cases, the particular organ systems primarily involved or a combination of these methods.
Since pediatrics is based upon the concepts of growth and development of the individual, the pediatric physician must take into account all factors known to influence the orderly course of these normal processes from the moments of conception throughout the periods of infancy, childhood, and adolescence. For example, such determining factors as heredity, prenatal influences (including maternal illness) and injuries incident to the process of birth explain most cases referred to as diseases of the newborn.