1.Why are mothers anxious over the poor appetite of their children? 2. What may lack of appetite be connected with? 3. What is the nature of appetite? 4. When do we feel hungry or full? 5. What are excitation and inhibition of the food center associated with? 6. What stimulates the digestive center? 7. What factors does normal appetite depend on? 8. What may poor appetite be connected with? 9. Why is it not good to give children fats in excess?
II. Translate the following sentences into Russian (conditional sentences):
1. If the patient does not drink enough water his fluid balance will be disturbed. 2. The child will lose his appetite providing he is given excessive amounts of protein above established norms. 3. Unless a child is given water between meals in summer, excessive perspiration and evaporation of water may lead to “thirst fever” (elevation of temperature up to 38-39oC) and subsequent digestive trouble. 4. The child’s appetite will improve on condition that his ration includes fruit, vegetables and cod-liver oil. 5. Various vitamin deficiencies will develop unless a child gets vitamins.6. Vitamin B1 deficiency can develop in breast-fed infants providing their mothers’ diet lacks vitamin B1. 7. Rickets affects children who live in good houses on condition their rooms are stuffy and badly ventilated, and they are not out in the fresh air enough in autumn and winter.
III. Translate into Russian. Pay attention to the function of “one”.
1. Children over one year old are given four meals a day. 2. Protein-containing food should be given to the child in the morning and afternoon; the evening meal should be a light one, without meat or fish. 3. One must remember that the entire environment and the aspect of the food stimulate the secretion of the digestive juice. 4. Sleep is one of the forms of internal inhibitions. 6. Fresh vegetables are tastier and more useful than the ones which are stored for a long time.
IV. Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the clauses without conjunctions.
1. The state of our health depends to a great extent upon the environment we are surrounded by. 2. The vitamin B group the child usually gets with meat, kefir, cottage cheese and cereals is an important factor in the activity of the child’s nervous system. 3. In a network of children’s sanatoriums our country possesses children are given highly nourishing food and spend much time in the fresh air. 4. Internal medicines the pediatricians prescribe to sick children are usually given in solutions, mixtures and drops. 5. Lack of appetite is associated with many illnesses of childhood, but then there are also other signs the mother usually notices.
V. Translate into Russian. (Gerund)
1. Salivary digestion is important in preparing the food for the changes that follow after this
process. 2. In making thirst more insistent than hunger nature makes a constant and insistent demand for water in the diet. 3. In studying matters concerning health, it is very important to know the cause of the disease. 4. The bile consists mainly of certain complex salts and pigments, which assist in digesting the fats of the food, and partly consists of waste products removed from the blood. 5. When a person is occupied in doing some physical or mental work, zones of excitation arise in the cerebral cortex. 6. Interesting work may be continued for a long time without bringing about any feeling of tiredness. 7. Working physically is very useful as work brings about an active state in the organism. 8. All physical exercises, regularly performed every morning, harden the organism of a person and put him in a fit condition for the whole day by raising his working capacity.
VI. Put all possible questions in the following sentences:
1. Mothers often complain to doctors that their children have lost their appetite. 2. To understand the cause leading to loss of appetite one must understand the nature of appetite itself. 3. If the food center of the brain is in a state of inhibition the child does not feel hungry. 4. Children must play outdoors, sleep and eat at fixed hours. 5. It is most harmful to give children various sweets or sugar between or before meals. 6. The sight of the attractively set table stimulates the activity of the digestive glands and improves the child’s appetite. 7. Normal appetite depends on a properly managed daily feeding schedule.
VII. Translate into Russian:
A food center condition; gastric juices secreting glands; an attractively set table; the digestive glands activity; a properly managed daily feeding schedule; gastric juice secretion; the digestive center stimulation.
VIII. Group the following words in pairs with opposite meanings: