Home Random Page





Since its publication in 2001, the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEF) has had a wide-ranging impact on the teaching and learning of languages around the world. Many ministries of education, local education authorities, educational institutions, teachers’ associations, and publishers use the CEF, and it will continue to have an impact for many years to come. In most countries there is general agreement that language learning can be organized into three levels: basic/beginner, intermediate, and advanced.

Course books and supplementary materials that are referenced to the CEF can help the teacher achieve his or her classroom goals. The book consists of seven units. Each unit comprises nine texts: three texts belong to level A2, three texts belong to level B1, and three texts belong to level B2. The texts are arranged in the following way: multiple matching, multiple choice, gapped text.


In this part, there is an emphasis on locating specific information and detail, and recognizing opinion and attitude, in one long text or a group of short texts. Students are required to locate the specific information which matches the questions. To do this, they need to understand detail, attitude or opinion in the question and locate a section of text where that idea is expressed, discounting ideas in other sections which may appear similar but which do not reflect the whole of the question accurately. Some of the options may be correct for more than one question.


In this part, there is an emphasis on detailed understanding of a text, including the expression of opinion, attitude, purpose, main idea, detail, tone and gist. Students are also tested on their ability to recognize meaning from context and follow text organization features, such as exemplification, comparison and reference. The 4-option multiple-choice questions are presented in the same order as the information in the text so that students can follow the development of the writer’s ideas as they work through the questions. The final question may require students to interpret an aspect of the text as a whole.




In this part, there is an emphasis on text structure, cohesion and coherence, and students’ ability to follow the development of a long text. It consists of the text from which several sentences have been removed and placed in jumbled order after the text, together with an extra sentence which does not fit in any of the gaps. Students are required to decide from where in the text each sentence has been removed. Each sentence may be used only once, and there is one sentence that students do not need to use. The task tests understanding of how texts are structured. Rather than concentrating on individual sentences, students need to be able to follow the development of ideas, opinions and events through the text as a whole, using their understanding of text coherence and cohesion devices.

In conclusion, it should be noted that at the center of the learning process and the framework itself is the learner. It is important that learners understand what the framework means to them so that they can use self-assessment and learner autonomy to become more effective learners inside and outside the classroom.



Level A2



Some people can't understand why teenagers often seem unhappy. After all, they have more luxuries and opportunities than previous generations. We asked eight modern teens about their most serious problems.

1. Read this text and the questions below.

A. Mick (aged14)

Well, it has to be schoolwork, hasn't it? Everyone keeps telling you that your exams are going to affect the rest of your life. And there are so many subjects, and none of the teachers worry about how much homework the others have given you. I reckon that I spend more time doing my work than my mom and dad with theirs. And we are expected to do sport twice a week at my school as well. It does not give you time for much else, does it?


B. Elaine (aged 17)

Of course I hate school, but it's not that I'm against education. It's other stuff. I'd like to get a boyfriend, but the boys at my school are so shallow and stupid. I keep in with some of the other girls, but they can get really nasty sometimes. Like smoking. I don't want to smoke. It's so unhealthy, but all the other girls in my group smoke, and they don't like it if I don't. I mean, what am I supposed to do?


C. Fatima (aged 16)

It’s not easy for me right now. I was born right here in this town, but some people still treat me as a foreigner. Not to my face, mostly, but you see it in the looks you get. And I like all the stuff that kids my age like, music, parties and all that, but my parents keep saying kids don't behave like that at home. They mean their home. I'm just not sure where I belong.


D. Sam (aged 14)

It's got to be my family. My brother is older than me, so he gets to go anywhere he likes and comes home late and no-one cares. But if I am five minutes late coming home, my mum won't let me hear the last of it. And when she goes to the shops, guess who has to look after my little sister? My dad keeps on at me about getting better marks at school, but wants me to help around the house. I just want them all to leave me alone.


E. Frank (aged 17)

I met this girl on holiday, she's from a town twenty miles away. We really like each other – actually we are in love. But our parents won't let us stay over at each other's houses. So I've got to take a bus every Saturday to meet her, because my parents won't drive me there. We only have a few hours together every week, and I'm worried she'll meet someone in her own town. My dad thinks that it’s just something I'm going through. He doesn't understand.


F. Allison (aged 14)

It’s everything. I mean my body's changing, and I find it hard to control my moods. All my mates are so fashion conscious and they make fun of you if you have the wrong jumper or trainers, and some of that stuff is so expensive. My mum says I should just ignore them and wear what I like, but you can't, can you? And I want to be a doctor, but you are supposed to know chemistry, and I just can't do it. Sometimes I think my chemistry teacher hates me.


G. Joe (aged 15)

There's these two boys, ever since I came to the school they have hated me. They play stupid tricks on me, and try to get other people to do it too. I don't think they are really popular, but everyone is scared of them. It's hard to make friends, because everyone knows that if they are friends with me, they are a target. I know if I complain to my parents or the school it will just make me more unpopular.



H. Cathy (aged 16)


I hate being treated like a little girl. That's what my dad calls me – his little girl. I'm not. I'm almost old enough to vote. But I have to be home by eight every night, and every time my parents hear that I'm going out with a boy they make such a fuss. Why can't they trust me? I don't even get pocket money. If I want something I have to ask my mom or my dad for it. It's not that they won't let me have it, it's just that they always have to control me. I hate that.


2. Choose from the people (A – H). Write the letter next to each extract on the right. When two answers are required you can put them in any order.

Which person  
is being bullied?   1.
is caught between cultures?   2.
resents babysitting?   3.
is worried by pressure from friends? 4. 5.
wants more responsibility?   6.
has problems with teachers? 7. 8.
has problems with transport?   9.
would most like a holiday?   10.
Which titles would go best with each extract?  
Not here or there   11.
Let me grow up!   12.
Too seldom together   13.





1. Read the text and answer the questions.


The girls in this sixth grade class in East Palo Alto, California, all have the same access to computers as boys. But researchers say, by the time they get to high school, they are victims of what the researchers call a major new gender gap in technology.

Janice Weinman of the American Association of University Woman says, "Girls tend to be less comfortable than boys with the computer. They use it more for word processing rather than for problem solving, rather than to discover new ways in which to understand information."

After re-examining a thousand studies, the American Association of University women researchers found that girls make up only a small percentage of students in computer science classes. Girls consistently rate themselves significantly lower than boys in their ability and confidence in using computers. And they use computers less often than boys outside the classroom.

The instructor of this computer lab says he's already noticed some differences. Charles Cheadle of Cesar Chavez School says, "Boys are not so afraid they might do something that will harm the computer, whereas girls are afraid they might break it somehow."

Six years ago, the software company Purple Moon noticed that girls’ computer usage was falling behind boys. Karen Gould says, "The number one reason girls told us they don't like computer games is not because they're too violent, or too competitive. Girls just said they're incredibly boring."

Purple Moon says it found what girls want, characters they can relate to and story lines relative to what's going on in their own lives. Karen Gould of Purple Moon Software says, "What we definitely found from girls is there is no intrinsic reason why they wouldn't want to play on a computer; it was just a content thing."

The sponsor of the study says it all boils down to this, the technology gender gap that separates the girls from the boys must be closed if women are to compete effectively with men in the 21st century.


2. Choose the correct answer.


1. In this sixth grade classroom, you would find


a. only boys allowed to use the computers.

b. only girls allowed to use the computers.

c. no computers in the classroom.

d. both boys and girls allowed to use the computers.

2. Girls usually rate themselves


a. as being uncomfortable using computers.

b. as comfortable using computers.

c. as experts with computers.

d. as very good with using computers.


3. A small percentage would be


a. 100 %.

b. 98 %.

c. 10 %.

d. 75 %.


4. Girls seem to find most of the software


a. as too violent.

b. boring.

c. as too competitive.

d. exciting.


5. This year is included in the 21st century


a. 2003

b. 2103

c. 1998

d. 1921


3. Number the items below in the correct order in which they occurred in time. Choose the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 to list the sentences in correct time order.

Boys find software more interesting than girls do. 4___ 1___ 3___ 2___


Boys are more comfortable using computers. 4___ 1___ 3___ 2___


In high school, more boys are in computer science courses. 4___ 1___ 3___ 2___


Both boys and girls can use the computers at school. 4___ 1___ 3___ 2___





1. Read an article on learning languages. Six sentences have been removed from the article.

You come across so many ways of learning a language: through CDs, the Internet,

magazines, books and so on. All these aids motivate you to go on, but you wonder if there is any real need for teachers anymore. My language-learning career started off badly. All I remember of my first French lesson at an English Secondary School is copying down the parts of the verb “to be” and my teacher’s strict orders: “Learn it!”

To me, an 11-year old who had never left England, the ‘verb table’ looked like a mysterious mathematical formula and made just about as much sense. 1. ___________. Teachers today tend to agree. Instead of using the old grammar/translation methods, they teach students in their classes how to achieve simple tasks and express everyday feelings using role-plays, games and other exercises which require them to speak, make mistakes and thus improve. 2._______________________________________. Its emphasis is on interacting rather than learning structural details of a language.

Before, people had to struggle in a traditional classroom. 3. _________________. For example, after university, the BBC’s book Discovering Portuguese gave me enough of the language to go shopping, order in restaurants and learn about Portuguese life and culture. It came with a cassette of real-life recordings of people speaking the language at full speed and exercises which made you listen hard to understand what they were saying. Self-study courses provide a relatively easy and cheap way to start learning foreign languages. 4. __________________. But the teachers do have a point.

Without someone there to give you instant correction, to demand that you try to pronounce that difficult word, and even to get you to open the book on days when you don’t feel like it, you won’t make much progress. 5. ________________________. The school I attended in London pioneered the communicative method in the 1950s and 1960s.

I was in a class with only five people. Over ten weeks, for two evenings a week we progressed through a rich diet of role-play and exercises, some from text books, some devised specially for us by our teacher, ranging from how to introduce friends to how to reject invitations politely. 6. ________________________________. You have to tell the other students what you really think, want and feel, and using your own language is forbidden.


2. Choose from the sentences A – H the one which fits each gap (1 – 6). There are two letters which you do not need.

A. However, today’s students are lucky to have a wide variety of multi-media programmes to help them.


B. As a result, beginners are more likely to learn how to buy a train ticket than how to form the plural of a verb.


C. The best thing about learning in a small group like this is that it motivates you to use the language you are learning.


D. The pronunciation of Portuguese was exhausting, Slovak consonants made my jaw ache, and Hungarian grammar made me want to study German again.


E. The best of them have plenty of quick, simple exercises, photographs and real life recordings so that you can learn a language on your own.


F. Twelve years later I had a degree in French, but was convinced that there must be a better way to learn a language.

G. Indeed, the more languages you learn, the easier the process of learning becomes.


H. That is why, when I took up Spanish, I decided to go back into the new communicative language classroom.


Level B 1


1. The people all want to attend a course. Read the descriptions of eight courses.

A – Form and Colour

This is year-long course is perfect for people who want to learn about how to use a camera and who want to take it up as a profession. Students will learn how to use light and shade, colour and different shapes. The course will also teach students to change their work using computer technology. Tips will be given on how best to get started in the profession.


B – Practice makes Perfect

Learn about how to use computer software to make your work life easier. This course is designed for people who use computers regularly as part of their career, but who feel they are unable to make the most of the technology. Learn about new software for storing documents and photographs and keeping records. This evening class runs for ten weeks from September to December.


C – Armchair Explorer

This is a series of daytime lectures by people who have lived and worked in wild places. Each of the six talks will focus on a different continent. Lecturers will show photographs of the animals and plants, and explain why they are only found in one area. Lecturers will include Leo Holland, a scientist from the Antarctic project, and Milly Oliphant, who researches birds in the Amazon rainforest. Tea and Biscuits provided.


D – Art Starter

Are you interested in a career in art? If so, this full-time, eight-week course will be perfect for you. Learn about different methods used by artists, including painting, drawing, photography and computer design. Artists will create work for an exhibition which will be displayed in the Town Hall for one month in September. Top businessmen and women from the design industry will be invited to attend the exhibition, so this could be a great start to your career!


E – Wild Design

Whether you want a career in art, or you just want to enjoy your hobby, this holiday course is for you. Wild Design is a two-week summer course situated on the wild coast of South Wales. We teach all kinds of art, including photography and painting, and the wild sea, beautiful flowers and great wildlife will definitely give you lots of creative ideas. Even if you already have a good understanding of art, you are sure to learn something new from our team of professional tutors.


F – Explore your Imagination

Do you want to show your friends a photograph of you beside the Egyptian pyramids or in the jungles of Borneo? Well now you can tell your friends that you have travelled the world without actually leaving the country! Join this evening class and learn how to use the latest technology and software to change photographs to a professional standard. You will also learn how to make your own computer designs using the computer programmes used by professionals.


G – Technology for You

Do you feel as if everyone is using a computer except you? Join in this five-day course and learn the basics. You’ll learn how to store your personal files, send emails and use simple programmes to write and print letters. In the afternoons you will have the choice of either learning how to make Birthday Cards and other designs on a computer, or you can join our ‘Basic computers for Work’ class.


H – Wildlife Photographer

Travel to a different wild place every week and learn how to take photographs of animals, plants and scenery. Our expert teachers will advise you how to take the best pictures. This course will run for six weeks on Saturdays. Students should already have a good understanding of photography and their own equipment. The class is suitable for everyone, as there is very little walking involved.


2. Decide which course would be the most suitable for the each person. Select the best course.


1. Harriet is 71, and is interested in painting and drawing. She would like to go somewhere in the summer where she can learn new tips and paint attractive scenery.


· A – Form and Colour

· B – Practice makes Perfect

· C – Armchair Explorer

· D – Art Starter

· E – Wild Design

· F – Explore Your Imagination

· G – Technology for You


2. Belinda works for a large Art Company and she feels she needs to improve her computer skills. She already has a basic understanding of some common computer programmes, but she wants to learn how to organize her work and store information.


· A – Form and Colour

· B – Practice makes Perfect

· C – Armchair Explorer

· D – Art Starter

· E – Wild Design

· F – Explore Your Imagination

· G – Technology for You


3. Jenny is interested in a career design, and wants to learn how to create art and change photographs using special computer programmes. She wants a course that will fit into her normal university day.


· A – Form and Colour

· B – Practice makes Perfect

· C – Armchair Explorer

· D – Art Starter

· E – Wild Design

· F – Explore Your Imagination

· G – Technology for You

4. George is unable to travel because he has difficulty walking, but he wants to learn more about wildlife and scenery in different parts of the world.


· A – Form and Colour

· B – Practice makes Perfect

· C – Armchair Explorer

· D – Art Starter

· E – Wild Design

· F – Explore Your Imagination

· G – Technology for You

5. Chris wants a change in career, so he’s looking for a full-time course in which he can learn everything there is to know about photography and how to use computers to change and sell his work.


· A – Form and Colour

· B – Practice makes Perfect

· C – Armchair Explorer

· D – Art Starter

· E – Wild Design

· F – Explore Your Imagination

· G – Technology for You





Protect your computer, by all means, but don't forget to protect yourself, advises web safety expert, Amanda Knox.

1. Read an article about online safety.

We're always being urged to stay safe online. But in an era where the internet is part of our everyday lives – for work, fun, study, shopping, even managing finances – it's not always easy to spot the dangers. Web safety expert, Amanda Knox, explores some of the issues lurking in cyberspace.

Her first piece of advice is to install software and a firewall to protect your computer from viruses, hackers and criminals who want to steal your data or financial information. "Think of these as your first line of defence," says Amanda.

So much for protecting yourself against intruders, but what about other problems? Say you've accidentally deleted an important file or you've been at the mercy of a natural disaster. Katy Marsh runs an online photography business from home and when a fire destroyed part of her house it could easily have spelled ruin for her business too. "Luckily I keep a regular back-up of my data so it wasn't a catastrophe." Amanda advises that while back-ups are good to have we must ensure we protect our computers to start with.

Whilst most of us are aware of the need to protect our computers, it seems we're more lax when it comes to looking out for ourselves, at least according to a recent web awareness survey. Web safety specialists say better personal awareness is needed and this is due in part to the rise of 'Social Networking' sites like 'Bebo', 'MySpace' and 'Facebook', which allow us to connect with people around the world with similar interests and professional backgrounds. Chris Simpson, a computer programmer, learnt the hard way. "I joined a free online networking group in the hope of making some professional contacts to help me find a new job. After a month, one of my online contacts invited me to take out a subscription to a club that promised access to a network of job recruiters. It turned out to be a waste of money. I ended up a laughing stock with my mates – they couldn't believe that someone in my job could get taken in so easily." No wonder then that Amanda warns, "It's easy to get complacent and let our guard down when we meet someone with the same interests online."

This brings us to other potential pitfalls. Are the people you meet online who they really claim to be? Can you be sure the person you're chatting with is in fact a 22-year-old Maths undergraduate from London and not someone merely masquerading as a student to win your trust? Khaled, a postgrad from Manchester University, quickly realised that it was unwise of him to post his phone number and email address in the public forum of an online academic discussion group. He was soon bombarded with unwanted emails and nuisance phone calls. Yet, it's astonishing how many highly educated people do this without considering the consequences that anyone in the world could use the information to make (unwanted) contact.

When networking and joining online communities it's better to be cautious about the amount of personal information you share. For example, it isn't always necessary to use your real name as a username when registering for a service. You could instead use a pseudonym, or a name that doesn't give away your real identity to other users. And is it really important to tell the world details about your school, college or any local clubs you're a member of? Sometimes it pays to be a little vague and simply say something like 'I'm studying at college in Madrid at the moment and I'm a member of a local tennis club'.

If you do experience problems from another user be prepared to report them for misusing the service. You'll be doing other users a favour too. And if all else fails, check to see if it is easy to delete your account and leave the service if you choose to and that you have the option to delete all your details.

A general rule of thumb is not to post any information about yourself that you would not be happy for the world to know – not just now but in years to come. This includes photographs of yourself, particularly embarrassing shots of you at that party which you may later regret! It's not always easy to remove information after it's been posted so you – not to mention your future employer – may have an unpleasant surprise a few years down the line.


2. Choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.

1. In the second paragraph the phrase “first line of defence” suggests something

a. is the only option.

b. offers protection.

c. is an instruction.

d. shows weakness.


2. The effect of the fire was


a. worse for Katy’s business than her home.

b. to ruin Katy’s business.

c. not as serious for Katy’s business as it could have been.

d. to make Katy start to back up her data.


3. According to the web awareness survey, our attitude to our personal safety is rather

a. relaxed.

b. concerned.

c. positive.

d. uncertain.


4. Chris first joined the networking group


a. because it promised him a job.

b. in order to make friends and have fun.

c. to assist him in a job search.

d. because it didn’t cost him anything.


5. Regarding Khaled’s experience, the writer is surprised that


a. people telephone complete strangers.

b. people don’t think of the results of their actions online.

c. university students take part in online discussions.

d. people sent emails to Khaled without asking permission.


6. What tip does the writer give for joining an online community?

a. Always use a false name.

b. Make sure you’re properly registered.

c. Limit the information you give to others.

d. Tell other users where you’re studying.


7. The writer says that you should report troublesome users


a. because other people will benefit.

b. so you can stop using the service.

c. only if nothing else works.

d. if you want to delete your own details.


8. In the final paragraph, the writer advises people


a. not to put photos online.

b. to apply for a job online.

c. not to have any personal information online.

d. to consider what may cause problems in the future.





John Prince, famous dancer and choreographer, gives advice on how to succeed in a career in the arts.


1. Read a magazine article about John Prince, a dancer, dance teacher and choreographer. Seven sentences have been removed from the article.

I asked John how he got started and what requirements there are. "Well, to be a professional dancer it's useful to have had acting lessons or some background in drama. If you want to succeed in musical theatre you have to have a good singing voice as well. When you approach an agent you should take a portfolio with your CV, your statistics sheet and some good photos and reviews of past performances. You'll need dance clothes, ballet shoes, tap shoes, and even roller skates depending on what kind of show you are going to go for."

1. ___________________________________________________________________

"Of course, you need to be extremely fit if you want to be a professional dancer. I dance or move about for about six hours a day. There are great health benefits to being a dancer. I can eat a lot of pasta without gaining weight because dancing increases your metabolism so much."

2. ___________________________________________________________________

John has a very busy schedule in the next few months. He took time out to speak to me today from the making of a pop video to promote N-ergy's latest record. "I choreographed the dance routine for the boys and they only had 2 days in which to learn it! I am going to be working on a video for another well known band - but that's top secret. Next month I'll be touring Spain in a production of a musical that was written by a friend of mine, Michaela Evans.


As for the future, I've come to realise that I would never be content to be just a chorus dancer - I'm too much of an individual for that. Like all artists I'd love to become a household name by writing and choreographing my own musicals."

John was born in Jamaica to a Jamaican father and a Scottish mother but the family emigrated to England 20 years ago. "I have a little sister I adore, who is also training to be a dancer." How does it feel to have someone else following in your footsteps?


Has he much more to learn, I wondered. "I've spent an incredible amount of my life training to get where I am. I went to college for two years in England, I trained for six months in Paris and about eight months in America. But you never really stop training or learning your art."


So, would you say it's been plain sailing? "I feel I've been lucky to a degree; many people hit problems breaking into the arts. It can be a vicious circle really. You can't become a member of Equity, which is the actors' and dancers' union, without good contracts, and you can't get good contracts without being a member of Equity. My advice to people who want to get into the arts would be to go out into the world, and try everything else first.


What has a dance career done for you as a person? "Thanks to dancing, I've visited and performed in 23 countries so far. This has opened my eyes to the world, and I've been able to understand issues like racism and inequality from a wider perspective.


"So all in all I'm really happy to be a dancer!"


2. Choose the most suitable sentence from the list A – H for each part (1 – 7) of the article. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

A. It's fine, but I try not to give out too much advice as it gets irritating!


B. And if nothing you like comes out of it, then come back and be an actor or dancer.


C. Without a strict daily timetable like this you find yourself wasting too much time.


D. After that it's back to England to start a new term of dance classes.


E. Hopefully this has enabled me to become a better and more tolerant person as a result.


F. When it comes to coping with stress, I find that exercise helps me to cope with my problems, so I stay in good shape mentally as well.


G. Like any profession where you're always travelling, you tend to acquire something new almost every day.


H. Being fully equipped with all this stuff beforehand makes it easier when you go for auditions.

Level B 2

Date: 2015-04-20; view: 1652

<== previous page | next page ==>
Are you a lark or an owl? | THIS MONTH’S LETTERS
doclecture.net - lectures - 2014-2024 year. Copyright infringement or personal data (0.031 sec.)