When Banks was 37 he realized that he had serious health problems. In hospital he was told he was developing cellulitis in his legs, a condition that can lead to gangrene and amputation. He was also told that he could lose his legs within a year – and his life within three or four. In fact the doctors were amazed he had managed to reach the age of 37 at all.
He was given a choice, one last opportunity to save his life: if he lost 45kg then the surgeons would perform gastric by-pass surgery. However, after the surgery Banks would have to stay on a very strict diet, no more alcohol and only one burger at a time. For most people this may be acceptable but for Banks the idea was totally unacceptable. He decided to simply diet and not have the surgery.
So Banks and a dietician worked out a daily regime of 2,200 calories which would allow him to still eat his favourite foods. The diet was an incredible success: over two and a half years he lost an average of 7.8kg a month losing a total of almost 230kg. This is understood to be the largest amount lost without the help of surgery. Even now Banks enjoys peanut butter and burgers and drinks the odd beer, he just eats a lot less.
Was it difficult for him to do? “Not at all,” he replies. “To be with Thelma, to see our nephews and nieces grow up, to continue to be the big brother to my younger brothers and sisters – all of these things are so important to me that I had the motivation to keep to the diet.”
Not long ago Banks was walking through a park when he met some of his former pupils. They were astonished to see how their teacher had changed. “In fact they were in shock,” Banks laughs. “And then they were in tears – they were so pleased to see me like this!”
2 Choose the words from the table to fill the gaps.
big chubby flabby large obese overweight plump tubby
“Fat” is the most common and direct word.
1 _________ is a more neutral word: I’m a bit _________. It can also mean too
fat, especially so that you are not fit.
2 _________ is less offensive than fat: She’s a rather _________ woman.
3 _________ describes someone who is tall as well as fat.
4 _________ means slightly fat in an attractive way, often used to describe
5 _________ is used mainly to describe babies and children who are fat in a
pleasant, healthy-looking way: the baby’s _________ cheeks.
6 _________ (informal) is used in a friendly way to describe people who are short
and round, especially around the stomach.
7 _________ describes flesh that is fat and loose and it can sound offensive:
exercises to firm up _________ thighs.
8 _________ is used by doctors to describe people who are so fat that they are
unhealthy. It is also used in a general way to mean ‘really fat’.
Do you agree with this point of view?
3 Thin is the most usual word: Steve is tall and thin and has brown hair. It is sometimes used with a negative meaning: Mother looked thin and tired after her long illness.
1 There’s a boy in our class who thinks the world resolves around him. He’s so__________________; he never thinks of anyone else.
2 The ________________ professor always forgot where he had put his hat.
3 She’s a very _________________ person and never gives up when she has made up her mind to do something.
4 Our next-door neighbour can be irritating but her intentions are good. She’s ______________.
5 John is a ______________ type and always does well in interviews; always feel really nervous.
6 My parents are very _______________ they even work at weekends.
7 John is so ______________ he’s always boasting about his achievements.
8 I can say anything in front of my grandmother, she’s not easily shocked. She’s open to new ideas and very________________.
9 My sister’s an _______________ person. She gets on well with people and makes friends easily.
10 My uncle has got stuck in the nineteenth century – his ideas are so _______!
6 For questions 1-14 read the text .Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the small line.
The greatest writer of all time
Graphology is the study and (1) ____________ of handwriting as a way of telling you about the writer’s (2) _____________. In order to carry out a (3) _____________ study of someone’s character, graphologists need a full-page specimen of someone’s handwriting. This has to be (4)______________ spontaneously under normal conditions.
One of the most widely analysed (5)_____________ is that of the greatest English writer of all time, William Shakespeare. The only examples we have of Shakespeare’s (6)____________ to write are six examples of his signature. (7)________________, experts do not agree on whether he wrote them at all. If he did, he could (8)____________ have been the writer who ‘never blotted a line’. The signatures are nearly (9)______________ and it can be seen that the name is spelt in several (10)______________ ways and written in several different styles. The three most (11)_______________ signatures are those on Shakespeare’s will. Their shaky letters may be a symptom of writer’s (12)_______________.
Graphologists claim that these signatures were not written by Shakespeare at all, but by his (13)_______________. One graphologist, Durning-Lawrence, claims with (14)___________ that the greatest writer of all time could not so much as manage to scrawl his own name.
7 Write down the names of famous people with the following characteristics.
3 He is__________________at football than his brother.
A) best B) the best C) good D) better
4 She is looking for a_________________________ suit.
A) blue, dark, smart B) smart, dark, blue
C)blue, smart, dark D) dark, smart, blue
5 There’s no need to be so - _______. We can solve this problem peacefully.
A) energetic B) aggressive C) nervous D) muscular
6 I think you’ve overdone your diet a bit – you’re too ________ now.
A) plump B) round C) skinny D) fleshy
7 I’m not _______ enough to make a speech in public. I’m too shy.
A) confident B) intelligent C) sensitive D) self-centered
8 Don’t be so _____________ Relax a bit!
A) insensitive B) stocky C) tough D) tense
9 They say that things often get_______ before they get better.
A) more bad B) worse C) as bad D)so bad
10 She seems much____________ since she broke up with Tim.
A) more happy B) happy C) happier D) happiest
11 She is one of ______________ people I have ever met.
A) most intelligent B) a most intelligent
C) the more intelligent D) the most intelligent
12 The sooner he moves out, _________ it will be for all of us.
A) the better B) the best C) better D) good
10 For questions 1-15, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space.
Hippocrates, the father of medicine, believed (0) that personality and physical appearance (1)___________..together. Even in our own times, researches (2)_____________.tried to prove that a person’s character is somehow connected (3)___________the way they look. Psychologists often divide people (4)_________two types: those that are short and fat and those that are tall and thin. People in the first group tend to be shorter (5)________average and as they grow older they (6)__________fatter. Although, in general, these people tend to be cheerful extroverts,(7)__________mood may suddenly change and they become either depressed(8)_______.inward-looking. Criminals often fall into these group and many dictators have also (9)_____________.of the short, stocky type, for (10)________Nero, Napoleon and Mussolini. Tall, thin people usually (11)___________smallish heads, long noses and bony faces. As far (12)__________.their personality is concerned, they tend to be both shy (13)____________bad-tempered. They often suffer (14)_________stress and avoid physical activity, although (15)__________.they do take part in sports, they are generally very good.
11 Study the following example.
12 Write a description of a person who has had an important influence on your life.
Important note: In the First Certificate exam you must write between 120 and 180 words.
LOOKING AT PEOPLE
1 Read the magazine article about beauty. For questions 1-12, choose from the people in the box (A-G).
There is an example at the beginning (0)
For question 13, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.
A Alfred Linney
B Mark Lowey
C Sir Francis Galton
D David Perrett
E Francis Bacon
F Judith Langlois
G Michael Cunningham
Which person states or stated the following opinion?
0 A happy expression can be of particular importance G .
1 Some beautiful faces have features which are unacceptable in an ordinary face__________________________________________
2 A judgement of whether a female face is attractive or not will vary according to women’s position in that society______________
3 Ideas of beauty are not limited by nationality______________
4 When choosing someone for a job, an employer may focus on particular features in a face_____________________________.
5 We can recognize a beautiful face when we are very young___
6 A definition of a beautiful face does not exist_______________
7 Making individual characteristics stronger can make a face more attractive____________________________________________
8 The most beautiful women do not look similar to each other____
A. explain the different reactions to beautiful faces
B. set out some of the different theories about beauty
C. come to a conclusion about what is a beautiful face
D. explain why people are interested in beauty
It’s not all a matter of taste-and that’s official. But we may not be nearer to learning just what beauty really is.
We all recognize beauty when we see it, but what makes a beautiful face is something that few can agree on. The most controversial finding in some research carried out by Dr Alfred Linney of University College Hospital is that there is no such thing as the beautiful face. Instead, Linney has found that the features of most top fashion models are just as varied as those of everyone else. ‘Some have teeth that stick out, some have a long face, and others a jutting chin. There is no one ideal of beauty that they are all a bit closer to,’ he says.
One of Linney’s co-workers, orthodontist Mark Lowey, even considered that some of the models’ features might have required surgery if found on a ‘normal’ face. ‘One type of problem people often seek help for is teeth that stick out,’ he says.’ One of the models has teeth that stick out eight millimeters and she still looks lovely.’
Recent findings from UCH go against one of the most influential scientific ideas of beauty-that the combination of the features of several ordinary faces can result in one beautiful face. The theory dates back to the last century and is the work of Sir Francis Galton, who made his name both as a psychologist and geneticist. In 1878 he discovered that if photographs of a number of faces were put on top of each other, most people considered the resulting face to be more beautiful than the faces which made them.
But this theory has taken a knock in a recent report from the science magazine Nature. Dr David Perrett, of the University of St Andrews, combined some photographs of both European and Japanese faces and asked people to judge them. ‘We found that not only were individual attractive faces preferred to the combined ones, but that when we used the computer to emphasise the combined features away from the average, that too was preferred,’ he said, This would account for the popularity of actresses such as Brigitte Nielsen and Daryl Hannah, who have features that are far from average.
The research also gives scientific respectability to another old idea. As the philosopher Francis Bacon put it more than three centuries ago:’ There is no excellent beauty which does not have some strangeness in the proportion.’
Dr David Perrett claims, however, that his beautiful faces had something in common. ‘The more attractive ones had higher cheekbones, a thinner jaw, and larger eyes relative to the size of the face than the average ones did,’ he says. He also found that beauty can go across cultures: the Japanese found the same European faces beautiful as the Europeans did, and vice versa.
According to Dr Judith Langlois of the University of Texas, even three-month-old babies prefer beautiful faces to plainer ones.
Another beauty researcher, Dr Michael Cunningham of Elmrus College, Illinois, has been looking at the effect of individual features in a beautiful face and has discovered that some features may or may not be desirable, depending on what the judge is looking for. When male interviewers are selecting a woman for a job, for instance, arched expressive eyebrows and dilated pupils are seen as desirable. On the other hand, men looking for a partner with a view to settling down and starting a family, found a wide smile more important than aggressive eyes and eyebrows. Cunningham also found that attractive women with mature features, such as small eyes and a large nose, received more respect. It could be that societies where women have more power and independence idealise women with more mature features,’ he says, ‘while those which value dependent, weak females may prefer baby faces’.
But the search for a better definition of beauty will continue, driven by the billion-pound beauty industry’s desire to find new ways of closing the gap between the actual and the ideal.
2 You will hear a lecturer talking about painting. Which of these names of shapes and colours does the speaker mention?
Shapes: triangle, sphere, cylinder, pyramid, rectangle, circle
Colours: blue, grey, red, green, black, brown
3 Listen again, and for questions 1-10, complete the sentences with a word or a phrase.
1 The second lecture will be about and periods of art.
2 The two basic ideas in all art are .
3 If wee look around us, we can see .
4 The primary colours are and .
5 The secondary colours are and .
6 Some paintings are without colour.
7 Cézanne said everything in nature is made up of .
8 Mondrian was interested in and .
9 The Mondrian picture was painted in .
10 Painters in the past also used in their paintings.
4 You will hear five people talking about their pets. Choose from the list A-F what each one says about their pet. Use the letters only once. There is one extra letter which you do not need to use.
A It is not expensive
B It is relaxing.
C It is beautiful.
D It is entertaining.
E It is clever.
F It is easy to look after.
5 Listen again and make notes on the advantages and disadvantages of each pet.
VOCABULARY & GRAMMAR
6 Complete these sentences using the correct form of one of the verbs below in each space.
Deliver develop paint cut repair take bring make test clean
1 He likes to have his breakfast ____________ to him in bed because…
2 He is going to have his portrait _____________ because…
3 She needs to have her eyes _____________ because…
4 She has had the television ______________ because…
5 He is going to have a new suit because…
6 He is having his hair on Saturday because…
7 She has the shopping to her house because…
8 She wants to have her sofa professionally because…
9 He is going to have his photograph because…
10 He can’t wait to have the film because…
7 Match the sentences form exercise 6 with their endings below.
A. …he thinks he is very handsome.
B. …it takes ages to dry when he washes it.
C. …it looks old and dirty.
D. …he is looking forward to seeing his holiday snaps.
E. …the picture was a bit fuzzy.
F. …he is lazy.
G. …he is going to get married.
H. …he needs a new passport.
I. …she keeps bumping into things.
J. …she is too old to carry it.
8 Read the text and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning (0).
Helen & Martin
0 A sigh B yawn C cough D sneeze
With a thoughtful (0) A__, Helen turned away from the window and walked back to her favourite armchair. (1)_________her brother never arrive? For a brief moment, she wondered if she really cared that much.
Over the years Helen had given (2)______waiting for Martin to take an interest in her. Her feelings for him had gradually (3)_______until now, as she sat waiting for him, she experienced no more that a sister’s (4)_________ to see what had (5)__________ of her brother.
Almost without (6)_____, Martin had lost his job with a busy publishing company after spending the last eight years in New York as a key figure in the US office. Somehow the two of them hadn’t (7)________ to keep in touch and, left alone, Helen had slowly found her (8)_________in her own judgement growing. (9)__________ the wishes of her parents, she had left University halfway (10)_______her course and now, to the astonishment of the whole family, she was (11)__________a fast growing reputation in the pages of respected art magazines and was actually earning enough to live (12)_______ from her paintings.
Of course, she (13)________ no pleasure in Martin’s sudden misfortune, but she couldn’t (14)______looking forward to her brother’s arrival with (15)________ satisfaction at what she had achieved.
1 A could B should C would D ought
2 A in B up C out D away
3 A depressed B weakened C lowered D fainted
4 A wonder B idea C curiosity D regard
5 A become B developed C arisen D charged
6 A caution B warning C advice D signal
7 A minded B concerned C worried D bothered
8 A dependence B confidence C certainty D courage
9 A ignoring B omitting C avoiding D preventing
10 A along B down C through D across
11 A gaining B reaching C starting D opening
12 A for B by C with D on
13 A made B took C drew D formed
14 A help B miss C fail D drop
15 A soft B fine C quiet D still
9 For questions1-15, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. There is an example at the beginning (0). Write your answers in the answer boxes provided.
Every year police forces across Europe deal (0) with hundreds of thousands of cases of missing people. Occasionally, the circumstances surrounding the disappearance lead police (1) _______organise highly publicized manhunts. More frequently however, the families of missing people (2)_________ told that the person concerned will soon return of their own accord. For this reason, the British missing persons bureau at Scotland Yard in London is notified by local police forces of people (3)________.have gone missing only (4)______.they have failed to turn (5)______.after 28 days. However, the bureau does act with more urgency when people who are regarded (6)______vulnerable are involved: these include people below the age of 18 or over 65, people who have disappeared (7)____.mysterious circumstances and people who are outside their country of residence when they go missing. In (8)___ cases a search is started immediately. The vast majority of missing people do actually return home within hours, days or weeks, but when the disappearance occurs far (9)______home, the sense of hopelessness is total. It seems that most local police forces do not (10) ______.the time to do the necessary background investigations into these cases, (11)________. As co-operation with other national forces abroad, or with Interpol, or running checklists on (12)____.who saw the person last. As more and (13) ________.people travel abroad or choose to live in (14) _______.countries, the need (15)________.international cooperation in missing person’s cases becomes more pressing.
10 Choose the correct variant A, B, C, or D.
1 She has a __________ nose that makes her look quite cute
A) turned-up B) slanting C) deep-set D) high
2 My hair’s so _________ I have to shampoo it almost every day.
A) freezy B) curly C) wavy D) greasy
3 My wife doesn’t smoke and neither ____________
A) I do B) I don’t C) do I D) not I
4 She has a _____________ - shaped face.
A) wide B) high C) curved D) pear
5 He bought a(n)_________________ cottage in the country.
A )stone, old, small B)old, small, stone
C) small, old, stone D) stone, small, old
6 I’ve never heard such a loud voice_______________his.
A) than B) to C) as D) rather than
7 Jane would prefer to work as a secretary___work as a typist.
A) to B) rather C)from D) rather than
8 I’m not as musical___________________my sister Mary.
A) than B) as C) that D) like
9 Experience is often more important________qualifications.
A) than B) so C)as D) that
10 It would be ___________ if you said ‘thank you’ now and again.
A) kind B)gentle C) respectable D) polite
11 I look more______ my mother than my father as I grow older.
A) than B) similar C) as D) like
12 They’ve only got a _________more copies of the book left.
A) far B) much C) lot D) few
11 Write the description, in two paragraphs, according to the situation below.
The description should be written from the point of view of your friends.
Study the language for describing people in Unit 2 WRITING before you begin
Use the clothes you are wearing now as the basis for your description.]
Physical appearance: height, build, hair, complexion, eyes, any distinguishing features.