Last Sunday I was sitting at a street cafe enjoying a cup of coffee when my friend Mark, getting too hot in the afternoon sun, rolled up his sleeves. I then found something out about him I didn’t know before – he had a tattoo! ‘Why yes,’ he said to my surprised reaction, ‘in fact I have many tattoos – on my arms, legs, chest and back!’
So when did (0) this start? ‘It must be about ten years ago now,’ Mark said. ‘I was travelling around Asia and tattoos were becoming very fashionable. I thought the designs looked really nice and I chose a leaping dolphin – (1) it seemed appropriate as I was on an island in the middle of an ocean.’ Yes, it’s certainly quite fashionable now – especially among the young. When I was young tattoos were associated with sailors, bikers and men working at the funfair.
Why has (2) this changed? ‘I suppose it’s seen as doing something different, a little risque or radical and that appeals to young people. And in Asia it’s both easier and cheaper to get a tattoo than, say, the US. (3) There, even a very small tattoo can cost $50. And did you know that it wasn’t until 1999 that New York City lifted its ban on tattooing!’ Mark explained.
But as my friend reminded me (4) this is not the first time by any means that tattoos have been fashionable. Although it’s not certain exactly where tattooing started there is lots of evidence that for millions of people throughout time it has been one of the most popular forms of permanent body art. It’s been suggested that tattooing may have started in Egypt because tattoos were found on Egyptian mummies from about 2000 BC.
‘Ancient Maori warriors,’ Mark continued ‘used to paint their faces with charcoal before a battle. They then began to make the lines permanent rather than reapplying the charcoal for each battle. In Borneo men were covered in images of plants and creatures. (5) This provided both camouflage and protection against evil spirits. And in the South Seas Islands, particularly Samoa, tattooing continues to be an art form since it was first noted in the 19th century.’
It seems that the first documented evidence of tattooing in Britain was in 787 AD when it was outlawed by the British Council of Churches as a pagan practice. (6) This didn’t stop people, including royalty. King Harold’s body was only identified after the battle of Hastings in 1066 by his tattoos. In the late 19th century, tattoos were popular among wealthy socialites. Lady Randolph Churchill, mother of Winston Churchill, had a small tattoo of a coiled snake around her wrist. Even Queen Victoria herself was rumored to have a small, discreet tattoo. It wasn’t until later, as costs fell, that tattoos became more commonly associated with sailors and criminals.
And what came after the dolphin? ‘Well, I continued the marine theme with different kinds of fish, then an octopus and a starfish. These are all on my left leg. I then decided to have a school of barracuda swimming over my left shoulder and the top of my arm. These took a few weeks to have done. I also have a huge shark on my back, chest and other arm. (7) That also took a long time.’
Does it hurt to have a tattoo? ‘It depends! If you’re feeling relaxed, then usually not. But if you’re tired or nervous then you’re more sensitive to pain. I met somebody who told me that they feel asleep during the tattooing – so it certainly didn’t bother (8) them! And it also depends where. Most people start with the top of the arm as this is usually fine, but if the tattoo is over a bone, for example on your foot, then (9) that’s a different matter! And it can be very swollen afterwards too.’
Is it safe? ‘If it’s done in a licensed place, then yes. This means that precautions are taken at every stage such as fresh needles for each person, everything sterilized and unused ink being thrown away and not returned to the bottle. Apparently,’ Mark added, ‘before the advent of antibiotics in the 1940’s there was an alarming rate of infection sometimes leading to the death of the tattooed – fortunately (10) that’s no longer a problem.’
And if you had any advice for someone who’s thinking about getting a tattoo, what would (11) that be? ‘Don’t be too serious about it! The people who regret having had a tattoo are (12) those who thought for ages about what would be most appropriate and then chose the name of their girlfriend or boyfriend, or the name of their favourite pop group. Then ten years later their lives have changed and those influences are less meaningful. They’re then stuck with something they don’t want. So have one, but do it for fun!’
Finally, where did the word tattoo come from? ‘It’s from the Tahitian word tattau which means – wait for it – ‘to mark’!’ he laughed.
2 Match the words with their definitions.
a red or brown mark on a person’s skin that has been there since they were born
a small dark brown mark on the skin, sometimes slightly higher than the skin around it
a mark that is left on the skin after a wound has healed
a small, pale brown spot on a person’s skin, especially on their face, caused by the sun
a picture or design that is marked permanently on a person’s skin by making small holes in the skin with a needle and filling them with coloured ink
3 There are 13 words written in bold in the text. What noun does each refer to?
(0) So when did this start? - Mark’s tattoos
(1) it .
(2) this .
(3) there .
(4) this .
(5) this .
(6) this .
(7) that .
(8) them .
(9) that .
(10) that .
(11) that .
(12) those .
4 Do you think the following information about tattoos is true or false?
a Tattoos have become more fashionable recently.
b Tattooing was banned in New York City until 1999.
c Maoris used to tattoo their faces for camouflage.
d Only lower class people used to have tattoos.
e Having a tattoo is very painful.
f Having a tattoo is a dangerous thing to do.
g Tattooing should be taken seriously.
h Tattoo is an old Portuguese word.
5 Listen to sentences that contain the following phrasal verbs and make a note of what you think each verb means.
1 to grow up_________________________________________
2 to bring (someone) up________________________________
3 to look after________________________________________
4 to get on (with someone)______________________________
5 to look up to (someone)_______________________________
6 to take after (someone)_______________________________
7 to get up to (something)______________________________
8 to tell (someone ) off_________________________________.
6 Describe yourself and your family situation. Use the phrasal verbs from exercise 5.
Example: When I was about nine, I used to get up to all sorts of things. Once I…
VOCABULARY & GRAMMAR
7 Put the following list of adjectives in two columns negative moods and positive moods.
Think of occasions when you experience such feeling.
A. has a very good opinion of him/herself?________________________________________
B. is usually happy?____________________________________
C. looks on the bright side of things?____________________________________________
D. buys you expensive presents?__________________________________________
E. never does anything stupid?____________________________________________
F. would never upset you?______________________________________________
G. never turns up on time?______________________________________________
H. really worries what people think of them?_____________________________________________
I. gets out of bed on the wrong side in the morning?___________________________________________
J. tells jokes?_____________________________________________
K. likes fighting with people?____________________________________________
L. doesn’t want to get out of bed in the morning?___________________________________________
M. will stand by you if you are in trouble?____________________________________________
N. enjoys the company of other people?____________________________________________
9 Put these sentences into the correct tense. Sometimes there is more than one possibility.
A. Where (you born)?
B. I (fly) to Hong Kong tomorrow.
C. I (play) football when President Kennedy (shoot).
D. What (you do) this weekend?
E. I (go) phone you, but I lost your number.
F. Shakespeare (be) the greatest English playwright.
G. It was the first time I (go) to the theatre.
H. It is the first time (hear) that record.
I. I (believe) that homework (abolish) by the year 2010.
J. The painter (paint) the ceiling, while the plumber
(fix) the pipes.
K. After the film (finish) everyone clapped.
L. I wonder who (make) more money - Michael Jackson or Madonna?
M. I (try) to explain how to do it for the past ten minutes!
N. This time next week I (sit) on a ride in Disneyland.
O. What time do you think the plain (arrive)?
P. He arrived at the party late because he (work).
Q. Madonna (produce) some great records recently.
R. I (not see) you for ages. What (you do)?
S. This time last week I (be) in New York.
T. Where you (live) before you (move) here?
10 Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.
Example: 0 The tennis star ignored her coach advice.
The tennis star didn’t pay attention toher coach’s advice
1 It would be difficult for me to finish the work by the weekend.
I___________________________ the work by the weekend.
2 Harry’s home is still in Spain, isn’t it?
3 When Sandra walked out of the meeting, she didn’t say goodbye to anyone.
Sandra left_______________________________ goodbye to anyone.
4 You can borrow my bike if you’re in a hurry.
I____________________________________you my bike if you’re in a hurry.
5 Angus rarely takes a holiday.
It___________________________________take a holiday.
6 We lost the game because of my mistake.
It was____________________________________win the game.
Tim_____________________________________his father at all.
9 The film I saw last week was better than this one.
This film_________________________________the one I saw last week.
10 I regret giving Dennis my phone number.
I wish________________________________my phone number
11 Choose the correct variant A, B, C, or D.
1 A: ____________? – B: He‘s a bit taller than me and he’s got fair hair.
A) What is your friend like B) How is your friend like
C) What is your friend D) How is your friend
2 She’s a very____________person who enjoys fixing things.
A) practical B) practically C) practice D) practice
3 I don’t think you should be so________with the children. Watching television for half an hour a day won’t do them any harm.
A) stubborn B) strict C) reliable D) thoughtful
4 It was very_____ of you to lend us your gar for the whole week.
A) generous B) ambitious C) modest D) thoughtless
5 It was very____ of you to eat the last slice of cake without asking.
A) loyal B) sensitive C) self-confident D) naughty
6 Don’t be so__________________! He was only joking.
A) sensible B) senseless C) sensitive D) insensitive
7 How __________________is your brother?
A) high B) tall C)long D) height
8 I have always_____my older brother for his courage and honesty.
A) taken up B) taken after C) looked after D) looked up to
9 We’ll have to find someone to ______ our plants while we’re away on holiday.
A) bring up B) get on C) look after D) grow up
10 His parents died when he was very young so he was……by an aunt.
A) grown up B) brought up C) taken after D) taken care
12 Find the errors in the following text. There are four correct lines. Follow the guidelines.
· Read the whole text through quickly to get an idea of what it’s about.
· Don’t worry about mistakes for the moment.
· Read the text again sentence by sentence. Concentrate on the grammar and the meaning. Look out for any unnecessary words.
· Don’t red the text line by line yet. You often need to read the whole sentence to see if it is correct.
· Now read the text line by line. Tick any lines you think are correct and mark the extra words.
· Don’t transfer your answers to the answer sheet yet. You may want to change your mind later.
· Make sure you haven’t marked more than one word in each line.
· Don’t give more than one answer. You will not get a mark if you do.
· Read the text again to see if it makes sense. Write your final choices on your answer sheet.
I have known Jonathan, or John as I call him, all my life.
The first thing everyone notices about is his height. He is
very tall, almost the two metres, but he is only seventeen
years old. The second thing is how skinny that he is.
People tell me that I am thin but I look like very fat.
compared to him. But despite of looking as if he hasn’t
eaten for several months, he never stops. He doesn’t
care much about his appearance. The last time he has had
his hair cut was at least since six months ago. It’s a shame
because he has got a nice, thick, dark - brown hair. He
would be quite a good-looking boy if only he smartened
himself up a bit. I imagine he will when he starts to
get interested in the girls. At the moment, though, his
only interest is his old car, which he spends all his time
and money on it. As a person he is extremely patient and
kind. If I can’t do my homework, he will always help to me.
I know I’m really lucky to have got a brother like him.
13 Read the following task and the answer the student wrote.
Write a description of your favourite relative.
My favourite relative is Aunt Lucy
She is my mother’s older sister. She is forty years old, but she looks younger than that. She has dark hair and is slim with green eyes. She wears glasses.
She likes fashionable clothes. Her favourite colours are green and blue. She has a nice green jacket that she wears. It suits her. She does not wear very much jewellery apart from a silver ring.
She has a nice voice. She sings in a folk group in the town where she lives. She is a teacher at a high school there and her students like her.
I think she is a very good person.
14 Read the following comments a teacher wrote on the previous description.
Your description is very accurate, but you need to make your writing more interesting.
For example, you say your aunt ‘looks younger’. How much younger? A bit? A lot? Years? You tell me she has ‘dark hair’, but you don’t say whether it is curly or straight, thick or shiny. Is it long or short? And what else can you say about her eyes? Are they soft and gentle or bright and sparkling? Are they more or less striking because of her glasses?
You talk about the jacket she wears and tell me that it’s green. What else can you say about it? Is it new? What is it made of? Why does it suit her? And what about the ring? Why does she always wear it? Because it was a gift?
You comment on her voice, good, but don’t use ‘nice’. Is it deep or soft and gentle?
And finally why do her students like her? What do they say about her?
15 Write a description of a relative.
Follow the teacher’s advice and use the outline. Use 120-180 words.
ü I suppose the first thing anyone notices about my… is her/his… .
ü S/he’s got… and… .
ü S/he’s not very…, but… .
ü What I like most about her/him is the way s/he… .
ü Once you get to know her/him better you realize s/he… .
ü S/he always wears… . S/he’s also got… .
ü But the most distinctive thing about her/him is… .
ü I suppose that’s why s/he is my favourite relative.
16 Write a description of another person you like and admire in 120-180 words.
NOTE: DON’T just write a list of details about the person you are describing! Think of general characteristics and how they relate to the person’s character.
1. Decide which person to write about.
2. Think about this person’ s
· physical features (hair, beard/moustache, nose, eyes, mouth, hands)
· general build.
· unusual habits and/or hobbies.
· favourite items of clothing
· voice or laugh
3. Write a plan including the points you thought of.