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And contrasting)

3. time :

· Monochronic time

M-Time, as he called it, means doing one thing at a time. It assumes careful planning and scheduling and is a familiar Western approach that appears in disciplines such as 'time management'.

Monochronic people tend also to be low context.

· Polychronic time

In Polychronic cultures, human interaction is valued over time and material things, leading to a lesser concern for 'getting things done' -- they do get done, but more in their own time.

Aboriginal and Native Americans have typical polychronic cultures, where 'talking stick' meetings can go on for as long as somebody has something to say.

Polychronic people tend also to be high context.

· Contrasting the two

Western cultures vary in their focus on monochronic or polychronic time. Americans are strongly monochronic whilst the French have a much greater polychronic tendency -- thus a French person may turn up to a meeting late and think nothing of it (much to the annoyance of a German or American co-worker).

4. information flow (direct/indirect communication)

b) Geert Hofstede’s model of five cultural dimensions:

1. Power Distance Index (PDI)

2. Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV)

3. Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS)

4. Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI)

5. Long Term Orientation versus Short Term Normative Orientation (LTO)

c) Trompenaars’s concept of culture:

Concept of culture is defined as a way in which a group of people solves problems and presents 7 values:

1. Universalism vs. particularism (What is more important, rules or relationships?)

2. Individualism vs. collectivism (communitarianism) (Do we function in a group or as individuals?)

3. Neutral vs. emotional (Do we display our emotions?)

4. Specific vs. diffuse (How separate we keep our private and working lives)

5. Achievement vs. ascription (Do we have to prove ourselves to receive status or is it given to us?)

6. Sequential vs. synchronic (Do we do things one at a time or several things at once?)

7. Internal vs. external control (Do we control our environment or are we controlled by it?)

d) 9 dimensions of cultural values as proposed in the GLOBE study:

1.Performance Orientation 4.Uncertainty Avoidance 7.Humane Orientation
2.Institutional Collectivism 5.In-Group Collectivism 8.Assertiveness
3.Gender Egalitarianism 6.Future Orientation 9.Power Distance
Globe Dimension One Extreme Other Extreme
Uncertainty avoidance Need for established social norms, rituals, and practices Comfortable with ambiguity and predictability
Power distance Egalitarian and nonhierarchal Hierarchy, authority, disparity in status and wealth
Institutional collectivism Collective actions and sharing of resources encouraged Individual actions and goals are encouraged
In-group collectivism Expressions of pride, loyalty, and cohesion Noncohesiveness, loyal to oneself and one’s needs
Gender egalitarianism Nurture, care, relationships, sharing Ambition, assertiveness, control
Assertiveness Assertive, confrontational, and aggressive in social relationships Timid, submissive, and tender in social relationships
Future orientation Planning, investing, and delays of individual or collective gratification Spontaneity, enjoying the present
Performance orientation Encourages and rewards group performance and excellence No rewards and encouragement for goals; more relaxed in terms of achievement
Humane orientation Encourages and rewards individuals for being fair, altruistic, friendly, generous, caring Concerns for self, not sensitive, not encouraging of social supports and community values

Date: 2015-02-28; view: 872


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