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LESSON 15 Global warming

Movies with big budgets that sell a lot of tickets are called _________. Many of these movies do so well that movie producers make a __________, or part II.

At the Theater:

The place where you watch a movie is called a _________. To see a movie, usually, you have to buy a ___________. The movie is projected onto a large _________ using a movie __________. An _________ is a person who shows you to your seat and makes sure everybody is quiet during the movie.

4. Study the inside structure of a theatre. Which seats are the most prestigious / convenient / cheap / expensive?


5. Write out music styles mentioned in the text. Think of other styles, give their definition or description.

The 20-th century opened a new era in the history of mankind, and the new epoch was to be described in new musical forms. The rules were left in the past. In the 20-th century everybody could choose the music that he would enjoy. In the 1920s in New Orleans beautiful music filled the streets and cafes. The black and poor singers sang about their hard lives. Their music – jazz, ragtime and blues – soon traveled to Europe. It was the time when the black music entered the white culture changing the lifestyle of the people all over the world.

Ever since the 1930s music was not just a way to relax. From that time on music began to reflect and determine the people’s way of life. Many sub-cultures developed as a result of the fusion of black and white music cultures. Black music evolved in the Caribbean and in the United States, later it moved to Britain. Such styles as reggae, rap, hip-hop to say nothing of the blues were created by the black community. Today many white musicians either perform the black music or use the black melodies in creating their own songs.

In the 1940s and 1950s new styles of music emerged. Swing, rock-n-roll and singers like Jerry Lee Lewis and Chuck Berry destroyed the laws of morality that were imposed on the people by the Church for centuries. In the 1950s Elvis Presley became the king of rock-n-roll in the USA.





Modern Arts

  1. Read the text and do the activities that follow.

American Graffiti

Until relatively recently, graffiti was considered to be an example of anti-social behavior, the work of vandals. Nowadays, many of those ‘vandals’ are treated as respected artists, and some of them have made it in the world of business.

1 New Yorkers used to see the graffiti on the walls of poor neighborhoods and subway trains as something menacing and an example of urban decay. The scrawled names and slogans were seen as unsightly and aggressive, the work of vandals seeking to express the identity or even make a political point. Up to the 1970s, most New Yorkers hated graffiti, considering it as an eyesore that was illegal and punishable by fines.

2 Since those days, graffiti has changed a lot and it is no longer found only in the subway and poor ghetto areas of the city. Nowadays, it has the status of ‘street art’ and you get graffiti in places where you wouldn’t expect to – in advertisement, on clothes, on toys, and even on the Wall Street Journal’s official website. In the early 1980s , the was a real craze for graffiti art and the sophisticated Manhattan art world has displays of street art in its galleries. The trend was short-lived – until the arrival of hip-hop music in the late 80s.

3 People now appreciating it for its style, which they couldn’t back then, because they couldn’t get beyond the vandalism thing. Hip-hop was originally black ghetto music, sung by young African Americans from the poor, run-down districts of American cities. When it suddenly got to the top of the American music charts, hip-hop culture was spread, brining graffiti with it.

4 Today companies realize the appeal of graffiti in advertising. Kel Rodrigues, who used to spray New York subway trains, was the artist chosen to design the Wall Street Journal’s website and it is obviously done in graffiti-style. ‘Some of that graffiti feeling, that energy, sort of got in there,’ Rodrigues explained.

5 Many of this new wave artists give lectures on developments in their art. Lee Quinones is having a lot of success in Europe and feels that European galleries and museums are more open to his art form. ‘They want to support an artists as he develops,’ comments Quinones, who can get up to $10, 000 for his paintings. Indeed, the Groninger Museum in Holland is one of the few museums in the world that displays and recognizes graffiti as an art form.

6 Another artist, Blade, has his own website devoted only to the world of graffiti. This website has ‘a merchandise page’ where Blade sells things with his own original designs all over the world – everything from baseball caps to yo-yos! Leonard McGurr, a street artist for 25 years, went from painting subway trains to designing and marketing graffiti-inspired clothes for young people. ‘Graffiti has been a story of survival,’ he says. ‘There’s a way to benefit from your work without spoiling public property.’


  1. Use the headings (a-g) to match the paragraphs 1-6. There’s one extra heading.

a) Spoiled Cities e) Tasteless Comics

b) Transatlantic Success f) Graffiti Products

c) Wall Street Art! g) Big Change

d) Ghetto Culture


  1. Find synonyms in the text for these words and expressions. Paragraph numbers are in brackets.

threatening (1) / ugly (1) / fad (2) / classy (2) / damage to property (3) / depressed area (3) / receptive (5) / acknowledges (5) / products (6) / advertising and selling (6)


  1. Answer the questions about the text. Use words from exercise 2.
  1. Why did New Yorkers consider graffiti the work of vandals?
  2. Why did graffiti artists suddenly become respectable in NY?
  3. What influence did music have on the popularity of graffiti artists?
  4. In what way does Europe take graffiti art more seriously than the USA?
  5. How do some graffiti artists make money?
  6. What are the tools of graffiti art?


  1. Read the text and do the after-text activities.

What’s the Point?

Lisa West went to meet a professional body piercer and asked…

Everywhere you look these days, you can see people that have got rings – hanging from ears and pushed through noses, lips and eyebrows. And they are in lots of other places that you can’t see, too!

Mick Shannon, who is a qualified body piercer, took me to his saloon. I was looking at the walls, covered with photos of clients, showing off their rings and jewellery and Mick pointed out his certificate, which was on the wall. ‘Some people give our profession a bad name,’ he said. ‘They don’t clean their equipment, which shows they don’t know what they are doing. I’ve known people who have got disease like hepatitis from cheap ear-piercing guns. I only pierce young people whose parent or guardian is with them. And they have to be over fifteen to have their navel done and over eighteen for their tongue.’

Is it an expensive fashion? ‘That depends. Ears, costing $8, are cheap, eyebrows are about $35, and the tongue over $100. Anything else I have to negotiate!’

I watched Mick pierce a girl’s navel. First he marked the area where he had disinfected the skin, then he pushed a needle through. He finished by giving the girl advice on how to help the skin get better, which was a nice professional touch.


  1. What can people have done to their bodies? Match the key words with the parts of the body in the box.
Parts of the body Key words Procedure done
arm dyed  
ears pierced  
eyebrows shaved  
hair tattooed  
nails varnished  


  1. Answer the following questions.
  1. Why do some people give a profession ‘a bad name’?
  2. How can body piercing go wrong? Is there any risk?
  3. Is body piercing expensive abroad / in your country?
  4. What are the reasons of piercing?
  5. What metals for jewellery should piercing use?


  1. Read the text and discuss the following.

Ø Do the tattooed symbols have any meaning?

Ø Are there any restrictions in pictures tattooed on the body?

Ø What are the most common parts of the body to make tattoo?

Ø Have you ever thought how tattoo will look like in person’s old age?

Ø Tattoo removal is an extremely painful process. Do you think it’s worth doing at all?

Ø Which of the types of modern art mentioned above (graffiti, piercing, tattoo) do you consider an art form? Prove your reason.

Tattoo is a marking made by inserting indelible ink into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment for decorative or other reasons. The term ‘tattoo’ or from Samoa, ‘Tatau’ is first referred to by Joseph Banks, the naturalist aboard Cook's ship the ‘Endeavour’ in 1769 where he mentions it in his journal.

Tattooing has been a Eurasian practice at least since around Neolithic times. Tattoos have served as marks of status and rank, symbols of religious and spiritual devotion, decorations for bravery, pledges of love, punishment, amulets, protection, and as the marks of outcasts, slaves and convicts.

The symbolism and impact of tattoos varies in different places and cultures. Tattoos may show how a person feels about a relative (commonly mother / father or daughter / son) or about an unrelated person. Today, people choose to be tattooed for cosmetic, sentimental / memorial, religious, and magical reasons, and to symbolize their belonging to or identification with particular groups, including criminal gangs but also a particular ethnic group or law-abiding subculture.

For example, in Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand, the tattoo is used for protection against evil and to increase luck. Most traditional tattooing in the Philippines is related to the bearer's accomplishments in life or rank in the tribe. Among Catholic Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina, tattoos with Christian symbols would be inked on to protect themselves from the Muslim Turks. People have also been forcibly tattooed. A well known example is the identification system for inmates in Nazi concentration camps during the Holocaust.

Extensive decorative tattooing is common among members of traditional freak shows and by performance artists who follow in their tradition. When used as a form of cosmetics, tattooing includes permanent makeup and hiding or neutralizing skin discolorations.

During the first decade of the 21st century, the presence of tattoos became evident within pop culture, inspiring television shows, etc. Formal interest in the art of the tattoo has become prominent in the 1990s through the beginning of the 21st century. Contemporary art exhibitions and visual art institutions have featured tattoos as art through such means as displaying tattoo flash, examining the works of tattoo artists, or otherwise incorporating examples of body art into mainstream exhibits.

The growth in tattoo culture has seen an influx of new artists into the industry, many of whom have technical and fine arts training.



Topics for discussion and essays.

  1. What would life be like without art? Is art important?
  2. Do you believe what art critics say?
  3. Do you like modern art?
  4. Do you think it is proper to call nude (îãîëåíà ïîñòàòü ó æèâîïèñ³, ñêóëüïòóð³) paintings art? Why do artist like to draw women’s figures?
  5. What is your favorite art web site?
  6. Do you find Picasso’s work astonishing or weird? Do you have a favorite painting? If so, what is it?
  7. Do you ever doodle (to made daubing – ‘êàðàêóë³, ìàçíÿ’)?
  8. What movie star would you most like to meet?
  9. How would your life change if you could do TV commercials?
  10. What do you think of TV shows that are designed to ‘discover new talent?’
  11. Why do you think music is important and how does it affect different people?
  12. What music do you prefer? Can you play any musical instruments? If not what kind would it be if you could play?
  13. What are some special or traditional musical instruments in your country?
  14. Do you like to sing karaoke? Do you sing while taking a bath?


LESSON 15 Global warming

Objectives: to practise using the vocabulary of global warming; to de­velop students' listening and reading skills; to practise writing a report.


I. Warm up

Answer the questions.

1. Which countries do you think produce the most CO2?

developed countries

developing countries


2. How many tons of CO2 are produced per person in your country?

II. Main part


Complete the definitions using one word in each gap.

1. An event which causes great harm or death — natural________ . (Disas­ter)

2. The condition in which there are too many people living in one place — . (Overpopulation)

3. A large mass of snow, ice and rock falling down a mountain —________ .


4. The cutting down of many trees —______ . (Deforestation)

5. A large amount of water covering a place which is usually dry — . (Flood)

6. A long period of time with no rain —______ . (Drought)

7. A sudden violent movement of the Earth's surface —________ . (Earth­quake)

8. A very violent tropical storm or wind in which air circulates ra­pidly — . (Cyclone)

9. A sudden large fall of earth and rocks down a cliff or the side of a mountain — . (Landslide)

Match words to make compounds.

1. Heath a) species

2. Global b) farming

3. Destruction c) eruption

4. Endangered d) programme

5. Exploitation e) warming

6. Greenhouse f) energy

7. Volcanic g) effect

8. Renewable h) of women

9. Modernized i) of habitats

Keys: 1 d, 2 e, 3 i, 4 a, 5 h, 6 g, 7 c, 8 f, 9 b.


Pre-listening task

™ Decide id the statements are true (T) or false (F).

1. The 'greenhouse effect' is caused by the release of carbon-based gases. (T)

2. Britain's coal industry is producing more and more carbon-based gases. (F)

3. The USA produces more harmful gases than any other country in the world (T)

4. All experts agree that global warming is part of a natural weather cyclone. (F)

5. Only the industrially developed countries are responsible for glo­bal warming. (F)

Date: 2014-12-28; view: 3043

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