Bread: Bread must always be broken, never cut with a knife. Tear off a piece that is no bigger than two bites worth and eat that before tearing off another. If butter is provided (and at formal events it customarily is not), butter the small piece just before eating it. There is an exception to this rule: If you are served a hot roll, it is permissible to tear (not cut) the whole roll lengthwise down the middle and place a pat of butter inside to melt.
Corn on the Cob: It is unlikely that it will be served at a formal event, but if you encounter corn on the cob, it may be picked up and eaten. The approved method of doing so is to butter one or two rows at a time and to eat across the cob cleanly.
Hors d'Oeuvres, Canapes, Crudites: Almost everything that is served at a cocktail party or during a pre-meal cocktail hour is intended to be eaten with the fingers. Some of these foods make appearances at regular meals as well (although not often very formal ones). When they do, it is still permissible to use the fingers to eat them. This includes olives, pickles, nuts, deviled eggs, and chips.
Small Fruits and Berries on the Stem: If you are served strawberries with the hulls on, cherries with stems, or grapes in bunches, then it is okay to eat them with your fingers. Otherwise, as with all berries, the utensil of choice is a spoon. In the case of grapes, you may encounter a special scissors, to be used to cut off a small cluster from the bunch. If not, tear a portion from the whole, rather than plucking off single grapes, which leaves a cluster of unattractive bare stems on the serving platter.
Remember to use a knife and fork if it is at all possible!
Removing Inedible Items from the Mouth:
The general rule for removing food from your mouth is that it should go out the same way it went in. Therefore, olive pits can be delicately dropped onto an open palm before putting them onto your plate, and a piece of bone discovered in a bite of chicken should be returned to the plate by way of the fork. Fish is an exception to the rule. It is fine to remove the tiny bones with your fingers, since they would be difficult to drop from your mouth onto the fork. And, of course, if what you have to spit out will be terrifically ugly --an extremely fatty piece of meat that you simply cannot bring yourself to swallow, for example -- it will be necessary to surreptitiously spit it into your napkin, so that you can keep it out of sight.
(choose one – any you like)
Task 10. Write a few paragraphs about etiquette for visitors to your country. Give helpful advice about things like table manners, hospitality and tipping.
Task 11.Find some more information about etiquette that is important to know when dining in certain foreign countries.
Task 12. Ex. 8, 9 p. 229 (Fastovets). Act out a telephone talk between Mrs. Barker and her mother.
The History of Fine Arts
1. Match the words and word combinations from the left column with the definitions from the right column.
1. genre of art and literature that makes a self-conscious break with previous genres, the period extending roughly from 1860s to 1970s
2. the name of the movement is derived from the title of a Claude Monet work, Impression, Sunrise
3. the style of sculpture, painting, or other arts as practiced in Western Europe from the 12th to the 16th centuries; characterized by the lancet arch, the ribbed vault, and the flying buttress
4. a movement in the arts during the early part of the 20th century that emphasized subjective expression of the artist's inner experiences
5. a cultural movement that spanned the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Florence in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe
f) Gothic art
6. a late 19th-century movement in art that sought to express mystical or abstract ideas through the symbolic use of images
7. an abstract genre of art; artistic content depends on internal form rather than pictorial representation
8. a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s presented with the works of Salvador Dalí, Man Ray, André Masson, Joan Miró, etc.
9. a 20th century avant-garde art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque
10. is an 18th century style which developed as Baroque artists gave up symmetry and became increasingly more ornate, florid, and playful
2. Find the ‘odd one out’. There may be more than one answer. Give your reasons.
1. a classic a masterpiece a work of art
2. a loan a grant a subsidy
3. opera ballet theatre
4. modelling sculpture painting
5. to appeal to interest to appreciate
6. to stage to screen to put on
7. galleries museums studios
3. Read the text. Use the word given in brackets changing its form as in the example.
Artistic and cultural life in Britain is rather rich. It passed several main stages in its development (develop).
London is one of the leading world centers for art. Many British painters are known all over the world. Among them is Joseph Turner, the greatest English _________ (romance) landscape painter. He was the son of a barber. He started drawing and _________ (paint) as a small boy. At the age of 14 he entered the Royal Academy School. His water-colours were ________ (exhibition) from the time he was fifteen. At 18 he had set up his own studio. Turner worked at first in water-colours, then in oils. He was the master of the air and wind, rain and sunshine, ships and sea. He dissolved the forms of his landscape in the play of light and shade. He anticipated the work of French Impressionism. Turner’s ‘The Shipwreck’, ‘Burning of the Houses of Parliament’ and ‘Snow Storm’ are masterpieces of the great artist.
Another _________ (fame) English painter is Joshua Reynolds. He was the first President of the Royal Academy of Arts and the _________ (found) of the academic principles of the ‘British school’. Reynolds was the most outstanding _________ (portrait) of the 18th century. In his pictures he didn’t only paint portraits but produced characters. ‘The Little Heracles Defeating Snakes’ is his famous masterpiece.
The National Gallery of Art exhibits works of all the European schools of ________ (paint). Here is the best _________ (collect) of the European and English masterpieces.
4. Read the sayings of famous people about art and decide which definition appeals to you most. You may choose several sayings to complete your own definition.
1) Art is the unceasing effort to compete with the beauty of flowers and never succeeding. Marc Chagall
2) Art washes away from the soul the dust of everyday life. Pablo Picasso
3) Fine art is that in which the hand, the head, and the heart of man go together. John Ruskin
4) Life imitates Art far more than Art imitates Life. Oscar Wilde
5) Life isn’t a support-system for art. It’s the other way around. Stephen King
6) Love art. Of all lies, it is the least untrue. Gustave Flaubert
7) Painting is not made to decorate apartments. It’s an offensive and defensive weapon against the enemy. Pablo Picasso
8) Science and art belong to the whole world, and before them vanish the barriers of nationality. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
9) The aim of art is not to represent the outward appearance of things, but their inward significance. Aristotle
10) The business of art is to reveal the relation between man and his environment. D. Lawrence
11) Were I called on to define, very briefly, the term art, I should call it ‘the Reproduction of what the senses perceive in nature through the veil of the mist.’ Edgar Allan Poe
5. Read the following dialogue and discuss the after-dialogue questions.
A: In my view, government money shouldn’t be used to support the Arts.
B: I’m afraid I can’t agree. Public support for the Arts is the hallmark of a civilized society where people enjoy freedom of thought and expression.
A: Those are very nice sounding words, but look ... when we visit Art Galleries in other countries, we usually have to pay to go in, but when foreigners come to Britain, they’re subsidized by the British tax-payer. They can enter the National Gallery and the British Museum without paying a penny.
B: I think you’re straying from the main point which is the access of British people to their artistic heritage whether they’re rich or poor. If this also makes Britain more attractive for overseas visitors, so well and good. What’s wrong with creating a few more jobs in the tourist industry? Think of all the money that’s spent in the souvenir shops of these galleries and museums.
A: Well you might as well argue that the government should subsidize all shops. I’m saying that it’s the British tax-payer who pays the bill.
B: You misunderstand me! I’m talking about national institutions, centers of culture which represent the best of Britain’s historical and artistic treasures.
A: That’s highly debatable. Some of the exhibits you see from contemporary artists are no more than tins of baked beans or piles of bricks.
B: I’m afraid you’re just trying to prove a general point by quoting extreme examples. Of course, not every artistic creation will be to everybody’s taste. The Arts can never take new directions without risks. Both the impressionist painters and Picasso took risks.
A: But in the real world, if people want to take risks, they should do so at their own expense. They should either find private sponsors or sympathetic bank managers. Why should other people pay for the exhibition of junk which nobody wants?
B: To come back to the main point, this isn’t only about contemporary experimental art. I’m talking about the appreciation of great masterpieces which have been acknowledged for centuries.
Ø Discussion questions
1. Do you think that the tax payer should have to support the Arts? For example, why should a football fan have to pay for opera?
2. Does your country have any well-known artists who are famous for cinema, theatre, literature, ballet, opera, classical music or painting?
3. What are your ‘top three’ art forms from the above list? Explain the reasons for your order of preference.
4. In what ways were you encouraged appreciating the Arts at home and at school? What jobs in the Arts world would be suitable for you?
5. Which country would you visit to appreciate the Arts? What would you plan to see?
Theatre / Cinema / TV / Music
1. Read the lines of a comic vaudeville ‘Romantic Fools’ by Rich Orloff.
(A Man and a Woman address the audience. Each points to the other as they say)
Man: ‘Why do women act the way they do?’ At some point every man ponders this question, gives up, and decides to focus on something simpler, like quantum physics.
Woman: ‘Why do men act the way they do?’ Since the beginning of time, scholars have asked this question, resulting in volumes upon volumes of man-written crap.
Man: Women make me feel – and that’s the problem. And yet, on the other hand… Individually, men and women are complex, dynamic and compelling.
Woman: Compared to amoebas.
Man: However, put men and women together –
Woman: And wear protective goggles.
Man: I mean, it’s not like I haven’t tried a rewarding, meaningful, interpersonal, nurturing – you know, all that kind of crap – relationship with a woman. I’ve been out with women who are repressed, flirtatious, maternal and needy. And I still haven’t found the right woman for me. And sometimes I wonder if I ever will.
Woman: I mean, it’s not like I haven’t tried to have an emotionally rewarding, sexually satisfying relationship with a man who doesn’t lie abut his marital status. I’ve been out with men who are meek, assertive, stoned, and sexually ambiguous. And sometimes I come from a date –
Man: I look in the mirror and say –
Woman: ‘Lori, buy a puppy.’
2. What word or phrase is being defined?
1. A play or film in which part of the story is sung to music.
2. The total number of actors in play or film.
3. The people who watch the play at the theatre.
4. What these people do with their hands at the end of a play.
5. The person who makes a film.
6. Journalists who write about films and plays.
7. The name of the articles they write.
8. The translation of the story of a film across the bottom of the screen.
9. To reserve tickets before the performance.
10. The most important actors or actresses of a film.
3. Fill in the blanks below with the words in the box.
Parts of the Movie:
The place or time a movie takes place is called the _________. What happens in a movie is called the _________. A movie is usually broken up into many _________. The movie is filmed with a __________.
People in Movies:
The people who act in the movie are __________. A _________ is a part that an actor plays. The main actor is sometimes called the ___________. When a famous person has a short appearance in a film it is called a __________. An _________ is an unimportant person who acts in the background. A __________ is a person who watches movies and writes reviews about them.
The type of movie is the movie ___________. A movie that makes you laugh is a __________. A movie that makes you scream is a __________. A movie that is exciting with lots of guns and explosions is an __________ movie. Movies about the future or space are known as __________ films. And a movie about real life is a __________. An __________ film has cartoon characters.